Apache – Arapaho – Blackfeet – Carrizo Comecrudo – Cherokee – Cheyenne – Chickasaw – Choctaw

Comanche – Cree – Crow – Kickapoo – Kiowa – Modoc – Osage – Quapaw – Senaca – Shoshone – Sioux Lakota – Sioux Oglala – Tejas

Bison Conservation Among Native Tribes  –  Horned War Bonnet or Headdress  –  The Great Buffalo Hunt at Standing Rock


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2014 Historic Buffalo Treaty Signed by Tribes and First Nations Along U.S. and Canada Border


This historic signing of the “Northern Tribes Buffalo treaty” occurred in Blackfeet territory in Browning, Montana, and brought together members of the Blackfeet Nation, Blood Tribe, Siksika Nation, Piikani Nation, the Assiniboine and Gros Ventre Tribes of Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, the Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes of Fort Peck Indian Reservation, the Salish and Kootenai Tribes of the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Indian Reservation, and the Tsuu T’ina Nation.

The Buffalo Treaty will create a lasting alliance among tribes of the northern Great Plains to:

  1. Engage northern Tribes and First Nations in a continuing buffalo conservation dialogue. The treaty tribes will commit to ongoing intertribal meetings to support ecological restoration and the reintroduction of buffalo to parts of the Northern Great Plains. 
  2. Establish a Buffalo Treaty that unites the political power of Tribes and First Nations from the northern Great Plains. This traditional treaty ceremony will establish intertribal alliances for cooperation in the restoration of American buffalo on Tribal/First Nations Reserves or co-managed lands within the U.S. and Canada. 
  3. Advance an international call for the restoration of buffalo. The treaty tribes will present a compelling call for the return of buffalo through media events and public relations efforts among the treaty tribes. 
  4. Engage tribal youth in the treaty process to create lasting legacy for buffalo. The buffalo treaty will include youth delegates at the treaty ceremony to inspire new conservation champions to carry forward the promise of healthy prairies and buffalo into the future.
  5. Strengthen and renew ancient cultural and spiritual relationships with buffalo and grasslands in the Northern Great Plains. The treaty tribes will articulate and further strengthen important relationships within their tribes, and among the tribes, to their lands and buffalo.  Historic Buffalo Treaty


Announcement: We have an Old Native Bison Skull that we need help in researching. Please take a look and let us know if you can help. Any information would be greatly appriciated. Thank you. Native Painted Bison Skull.


Native languages was the source for most of the buffalo/bison terms below.

In Plains Indian languages in general, male and female buffaloes are distinguished, with each having a different designation rather than there being a single generic word covering both sexes. Thus:

Achumawi (Pit River Tribe) — Páw or kujū

biis (female),
heneecee (bull),
nonooni (calf)
Naw-tuh-tha (buffalo belly) Source, History of Colorado 1918

There are many different Apache dialects, but the eastern Apaches generally use the word bi.shish.jik – buffalo

Assiniboine— tatąga (male) pte (female)

Blackfoot……………………..iinii, stomick (bull)

Carrizo Comecrudo (Esto’k gna) ……Wakate (wah kaha te)

Indian Women over dead Buffalo
Women over dead Buffalo-LOC

Cherokee, it’s ᏯᎾᏏ (yansi). However, this is the word for bison, not for buffalo.

Cheyenne……………………hotova’a (bull), hotoaao’o , méhe (female)

Chickasaw…. yanash

Chippewa – OJIBWE (said to mean “Puckered Moccasin People”)

Choctaw Vocabulary: yυnυsh – buffalo yänäsh (yah-nahsh) = buffalo

All the various nations of Indians, seem to be of one descent; they call a buffalo, in their various dialects, by one and the same name, “Yanasa.”  James Adair ‘History of the American Indians-1775 (providing a survey of southern Indian history from the 1740s through the 1760s, particularly the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Creek, and Choctaw)

Comanche ….. tasiwóo –buffalo, nʉmʉ kuutsu –buffalo

Cree- shaganappi – thin narrow cord -product of the Buffalo was shaganappi, or as it was often called ”Northwest iron.” The word in common use is a corruption of the Cree compound pesaaganappi (”shred in a circle”) , and the common sort was simply a long strip cut concentrically from the hide of an old bull. (see below 1890)

Cree – Grammer of the Cree Language by J. Horden, 1881
Napā mistos- Bull
Nashā mistos – Cow

The nêhiyawak (Cree) call buffalo paskwâwi-mostos, or just mostos (which now is a term most used for domesticated cattle, but used to mean only buffalo).

Cree Plains – paskwâwimostos – buffalo
Source: Alberta Elders’ Cree Dictionary English-Cree
Language: Northern Cree

Creek – Maskoki ( Muscogee- by English) -yanase –buffalo, is the same in all dialects, and was probably obtained from the North, since the term occurs in Cheroki also (ya’hsa in Eastern Cheroki)

Crow…. Bishée, tidusup (bull)

“TOASTS HIS MOCCASINED FEET BY THE FIRE.” BUFFALO LAND – 1873 Now, from time beyond ken, the noble savage has been illustrious for the ingenuity with which he lays all disagreeable duties upon the shoulders of the patient squaw. He may ride to their death, in free wild sport, the bison multitudes; but their skins must be converted into marketable robes, and the flesh into jerked meat, by the ugly and over-worked partner of his bosom. While she pins the raw hide to earth, and bends patiently over, fleshing it with horn hatchet for weary hours, the stronger vessel, his abdominal recesses wadded with buffalo meat, toasts his moccasined feet by the fire, fills his lungs with smoke from villainous killikinick, and muses soothingly of white scalps and happy hunting grounds.

Hidatsa……………………….mite kedapi

Kickapoo….. miisiikwaaha


Osage… DADO^KA ]E -ttattonka (male) ttse (female)
Osage? (Painted Figures)These consist chiefly of representations of strange figures (Chimaradira), buffaloes 



Quapaw…….. tte

Seneca Nation “Gakwi:yo:h Farms”- bison producer-
comes from the meaning “good food”

Shawnee …meθoθo


Shoshone Eastern …..Buffalo (bull)…..boy•z shahn or boy•z shuhn
Boy-Zhan Bi-Den is the Shoshone term for “buffalo return.”

Shoshonees: the word for pantaloons and buffalo robe is the same.  (1850s)

Sioux -Lakota language, the word “Tatanka” is translated as
“buffalo” or “buffalo bull.”  (Ta for buffalo and Tanka for huge.)
“We call them in our language “Tatanka,” which means “He Who Owns Us.” Lakota”
pte (female),
tatanka (bull, also elk, bear),
ptehinchala (calf),
heyuktan (bent horns),
ptesan (white buffalo)
ptecila – small buffalo
tatanka ohitika – brave buffalo
tashina pte – buffalo robe
Tatanka-Kta – the dead buffalo

Sioux- Oglala
nik-nik- bovine feces, (Modern day term for B.S.?)
wasicu – large herd of buffalo – fat ?
Hoka hey – charge
Hya-a-a-a! – Thanks!
Pteh cala st pi wi – dark red calves- February
waphíya – healer

Sioux-Omaha (pronounced Oh Ma Ha) Ta pronounced Tay 

Taos Indians – KAH – NOO -NAH- buffalo


Buffalo Nation

Boeuf, Nation du. Mentioned in the Jesuit Relation of 1662 as a tribe against which the Iroquois that year sent out an expedition. The name signifies “Buffalo Nation,” but to what people it refers is unknown; it may have designated either the Buffalo clan or gens of some tribe or one of the buffalo hunting tribes of the West.

Side Note: Iroquois, any member of the North American Indian tribes speaking a language of the Iroquoian family—notably the Cayuga, Cherokee, Huron, Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Seneca, and Tuscarora. The peoples who spoke Iroquoian languages occupied a continuous territory around Lakes Ontario, Huron, and Erie in present-day New York state and Pennsylvania (U.S.) and southern Ontario and Quebec (Canada). That larger group should be differentiated from the Five Nations (later Six Nations) better known as the Iroquois Confederacy (self name Haudenosaunee Confederacy).


Native Populations from early discovery to 1841

In the following analysis, the names of the tribes have been generally given in the singular number, for the sake of brevity; and the word Indians, after such names, is omitted from the same cause. A few abbreviations have been used: -W. R., west of the Rocky Mountains; m., miles; r., river; \, lake; and perhaps a few others. In some instances, reference is made to the body of the work, where a more extended account of a tribe is to be found. Such references are to the Book and Page, the same as in the

ABEKAS, probably Muskogees, under the French at Tombeckbee in 1750.
ABENARIES, Over Maine till 1754, then went to Canada; 200 in 1689; 150 in 1780.
ABSOROKA, (Minetare,) S. branch Yellowstone; lat. 46°, lon. 105°; 45,000 in 1834
ACCOKESAW, W. side Colorado, about 200 m. S. W. Nacogdoches.
ACOMAK, one of the six tribes in Virginia when settled by the English in 1607.
ADAIZE, 4 m. from Nachitoches, on Lake Macdon; 40 men in 1805.
ADIRONDAKS, (Algonkin,) along the N. shore St. Lawrence; 100 in 1786.
AFFAGOULA, Small clan in 1783, on Mississippi r., 8 m. above Point Coupé.
AGAWOM, (Wampanoags,) at Sandwich, Mass.; others at Ipswich. ii. 46.
AHWAHAWAY, (Minetare,) S. W. Missouri 1820, 3 m. above Mandans; 200 in 1805.
AJOUES, S. of the Missouri, and N. of the Padoucas; 1,100 in 1760.
ALANSAR, (Fall,) head branches S. fork Saskashawan; 2,500 in 1804.
ALGONKIN, Over Canada; from low down the St. Lawrence to Lake of the Woods.
ALIATAN, three tribes in 1805 among the Rocky Mountains, on heads Platte.
ALICHE, near Nacogdoches in 1805, then nearly extinct; spoke Caddo.
ALLAKAWEAH, (Paunch,) both sides Yellowstone, heads Big Horn r.; 2,300 in 1805.
ALLIBAMA, formerly on that r., but removed to Red River in 1764.
AMALISTES, (Algonkins,) once on St. Lawrence; 500 in 1760.
ANASAGUNTAKOOK, (Abenaki,) on sources Androscoggin, in Maine. iii. 136, 152.
ANDASTES, once on S. shore Lake Erie, S. W. Senecas, who destroyed them in 1672.
APACHES, (Lapane,) between Rio del Norte and sources of Nuaces r.; 3,500 in 1817.
APALACHICOLA, once on that r. in W. Florida; removed to Red River in 1764.
APPALOUSA, aboriginal in the country of their name; but 40 men in 1805.
AQUANUSCHIONI, the name by which the Iroquois knew themselves. v. 3, &c.
ARAPAHAS, S. side main Canada River; 4,000 in 1836, on Kanzas River.
ARMOUCHIQUOIs, or MARACHITE, (Abenaki,) on River St. Johns, New Brunswick.
ARRENAMUSE, on St. Antonio River, near its mouth, in Texas; 120 in 1818.
ASSINNABOIN, (Sioux,) betw. Assinn. and Missouri r.; 1,000 on Ottawa r. in 1836.
ATENAS, in a village with the Faculli in 1836, west of the Rocky Mountains.
ATHAPASCOW, about the shores of the great lake of their name.
ATNAS, next S. of the Athapascow, about lat. 57° N.
ATTACAPAS, in a district of their name in Louisiana; but 50 men in 1805.
ATTAPULGAS, (Seminoles,) on Little r., a branch of Oloklikana, 1820, and 220 souls.
ATTIKAMIGUES, in N. of Canada, destroyed by pestilence in 1670.
AUCOSISCO, (Abenaki,) between the Saco and Androscoggin River. ii. 48; iii . 93.
 AUGHQUAGA, on E. branch Susquehannah River; 150 in 1768; since extinct.
AYAUAIS, 40 leagues up the Des Moines, S. E. side; 800 in 1805.
AYUTANS, 8,000 in 1820, S. W. the Missouri, near the Rocky Mountains.

BAYAGOULA, W. bank Mississippi, opposite the Colipasa; important in 1699.
BEDIES, on Trinity River, La., about 60 m. S. of Nacogdoches; 100 in 1805.
BIG- DEVILS, (Yonktons.) 2,500 in 1836; about the heads of Red River.
BILOXI, at Biloxi, Gulf Mex., 1699; a few on Red r., 1804, where they had removed.
BLACKFEET, Sources Missouri; 30,000 in 1834; nearly destroyed by smallpox, 1838.
BLANCHE, (Bearded, or White,) upper S. branches of the Missouri.
BLUE-MUD, W., and in the vicinity, of the Rocky Mountains.
BROTHERTON, near Oneida Lake; composed of various tribes; 350 in 1836.

CADDO, on Red River in 1717, powerful; on Sodo Bay in 1800; in 1804, 100 men.
CADODACHE, (Nacogdochet,) on Angelina r., 100 m. above the Nechez; 60 in 1820.
CAIWAS, or KAIWA, on main Canada River, and S. of it in 1830.
CALASTHOCLE, N. Columbia, on the Pacific, next N. the Chillates; 200 in 1820.
CALLIMIX, coast of the Pacific, 40 m. N. Columbia River; 1,200 in 1820.
CAMANCHES, (Shoshone) warlike and numerous; in interior of Texas.
CANARSEE, on Long Island, N. Y., in 1610, from the W. end to Jamaica.
CANCES, (Kansas,) 1805, from Bay of St. Bernard, over Grand r., toward Vera Cruz.
CANIBAS, (Abenaki,) numerous in 1607, and after; on both sides Kennebeck River.
CARANKOUA, on peninsula of Bay of St. Bernard, Louisiana; 1,500 in 1805.
CAREE, on the coast between the Nuaces and Rio del Norte; 2,600 in 1817.
CARRIERS, (Nateotetains, ) a name given the natives of N. Caledonia by traders.
CASTAHANA, between sources Padouca fork and Yellowstone; 5,000 in 1805.
CATAKA, between N. and S. forks of Chien River; about 3,000 in 1804.
 CATAWBA, till late, on their river in S. Carolina; 1,500 in 1743, and 450 in 1764.
CATHLACUMUPS, on main shore Columbia River, S. W. Wappatoo i.; 450 in 1820.
CATHLAKAHIKIT, at the rapids of the Columbia, 160 m. up; 900 in 1820.
CATHLAKAMAPS, 80 m. up Columbia River; about 700 in 1820.
CATHLAMAT, on the Pacific, 30 m. S. mouth of Columbia River; 600 in 1820.
CATHLANAMENAMEN, on an island in mouth of Wallaumut River; 400 in 1820.
CATHLANAQUIAH, (Wappatoo,) S. W. side Wappatoo Island; 400 in 1820.
CATHLAPOOTLE, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakamaps; 1,100 in 1820.
CATHLAPOOYA, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth.
CATHLASKO, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River. opposite the Chippanchikchiks.
CATHLATHLA, 900 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite the Cathlakahikits.
CATHLATH, 500 in 1820, on the Wallaumut River, 60 m. from its mouth.
CATTANAHAW, between the Saskashawan and Missouri Rivers, in 1805. 1 #
CAUGHNEWAGA, places where Christians lived were so called. v. 115.
CHACTOO, On Red River; in 1805, but 100; indigenous of that place, it is said.
CHAOUANONS, the French so called the Shawanese; (Chowans?)
CHEEGEE, (Cherokees,) 50 to 80 m. S. of them; called also Mid. Settlement, 1780.
CHEHAWS, small tribe on Flint River, destroyed by Georgia militia in 1817.
CHEPEYAN, claim from lat. 60° to 65°, lon. 100° to 110° W.; 7,500 in 1812.
CHEROKEE, in Georgia, S. Carolina, &c., till 1836; then forced beyond the Mississ.
CHESKITALOWA, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee.
CHIEN, (Dog,) near the sources Chien River; 300 in 1805; 200 in 1820.
CHIHEELEESH, 40 m. N. of Columbia River; 1,400 in 1820.
CHIKASAW, between heads of Mobile River in 1780; once 10,000; now in Arkansas.
CHIPPANCHIKCHIKS, 60 in 1820, N. side Columbia River, 220 m. from its mouth.
CHIKAHOMINI, on Matapony River, Va., in 1661; but 3 or 4 in 1790; now extinct.
CHIKAMAUGAS, on Tennessee River, 90 m. below the Cherokees, in 1790.
CHILLATES, 150 in 1820, on the Pacific, N. Columbia River, beyond the Quieetsos.
CHILLUKITTEQUAU, on the Columbia, next below the Narrows; 1,400 in 1820.
CHILTZ, N. of Columbia River, on the Pacific, next N. of the Killaxthocles.
CHIMNAHPUM, on Lewis River, N. W. side of the Columbia; 1,800 in 1820.
CHINNOOK, On N. side Columbia River; in 1820, about 400 in 28 lodges.
CHIPPEWAS, about Lake Superior, and other vast regions of the N., very numerous.
CHITIMICHA, on W. bank Miss. River in 1722; once powerful, then slaves.
CHOKTAW, S. of the Creeks; 15,000 in 1812; now in Arkansas. iv. 25.
CHOPUNNISH, On Kooskooskee River; 4,300 in 1806, in 73 lodges.
CHOWANOK, ( Shawanese ?) in N. Carolina, on Bennet’s Creek, in 1708; 3,000 in 1630.
CHOWANS, E. of the Tuscaroras in N. Carolina; 60 join the Tuscaroras in 1720.
CHRISTENAUX, only another spelling of KNISTENAUX, which see.
CLAHCLELLAH, 700 in 1820, on the Columbia River, below the rapids.
CLARSTAR, W. R., on a river flowing into the Columbia at Wappatoo Island.
CLAMOCTOMICH, on the Pacific, next N. of the Chiltz; 260 in 1820.
CLANIMATAS, on the S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 200 in 1820, W. R.
CLANNARMINIMUNS, S. W. side of Wappatoo Island; 280 in 1820, W. R.
CLATSOPS, about 2 m. N. of the mouth of Columbia River; 1,300 in 1820.
CLARKAMES, on a river of their name flowing into the Wallaumut; 1,800 in 1820.
CNEIS, on a river flowing into Sabine Lake, 1690; the COENIS of Hennepin, probably
COHARIES, nearly destroyed in Pontiak’s time; in 1800, a few near Lake Winnebago.
COLAPISSAS, on E. bank Mississippi in 1720, opposite head of Lake Pontchartrain.
CONCHATTAS came to Appalousas in 1794, from E. the Mississ.; in 1801, on Sabine.
CONGAREES, a small tribe on Congaree River, S. Carolina, in 1701; long since gone.
CONOYS, perhaps Kanhawas, being once on that river; (Canais, and variations.)
COOKKOO-00SE, 1,500 in 1806, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., and S. of Killawats.
COOPSFELLAR, on a river falling into the Columbia, N. of Clark’s; 1,600 in 1806.
COOSADAS, (Creeks,) once resided near the River Tallapoosie.
COPPER, So called from their copper ornaments, on Coppermine River, in the north.
COREES, (Tuscaroras,) on Neus River, N. Carolina, in 1700, and subsequently.
CORONKAWA, on St. Jacintho River, between Trinity and Brazos; 350 in 1820.
COWLITSICK, on Columbia River, 62 m. from its mouth, in 3 villages; 2,400 in 1820.
CREEKS, (Muscogees,) Savannah r. to St. Augustine, thence to Flint r., 1730. iv. 54.
CREES, (Lynx, or Cat,) another name of the Knistenaux, or a part of them.
CROWS, (Absorokas,) S. branches of the Yellowstone River; 45,000 in 1834.
CUTSAHNIM, on both sides Columbia River, above the Sokulks; 1,200 in 1820.

DAHCOTA, or DocOTA, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
DELAWARE, (Lenna-lenape,) those once on Delaware River and Bay; 500 in 1750.
DINONDADIES, (Hurons,) same called by the French Tionontaties.
DOEGS, small tribe on the Maryland side Potomac River, in 1675.
DOGRIBS, (Blackfeet,) but speak a different language.
DOGS, the Chiens of the French. See CHIEN.
DOTAME, 120 in 1805; about the heads of Chien River, in the open country.

ECHEMINS, (Canoe-men,) on R. St. Johns; include Passamaquoddies and St. Johns.
EDISTOES, in S. Carolina in 1670; a place still bears their name there.
EMUSAS, (Seminoles,) W. side Chattahoochee, 2 m. above the Wekisas; 20 in 1820.
ENESHURES, at the great Narrows of the Columbia; 1,200 in 1820, in 41 lodges.
ERIES, along E. side of Lake Erie, destroyed by the Iroquois about 1654.
ESAWS, on River Pedee, S. Carolina, in 1701; then powerful; Catawbas, probably.
ESKELOOTS, about 1,000 in 1820, in 21 lodges, or clans, on the Columbia.
ESQUIMAUX, all along the northern coasts of the frozen ocean, N. of 60° N. lat.
ETOHUSSEWAKKES, (Semin.,) on Chattahoochee, 3 m. above Ft. Gaines; 100 in 1820. vifi
FACULLIES, 100 in 1820; on Stuart Lake, W. Rocky Mount.; lat. 54°, lon . 125° W.
FALL, so called from their residence at the falls of the Kooskooskee. See ALANSARS.
FIVE NATIONS, Mohawks, Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, and Oneidas; which see.
FLAT- HEADS, (Tutseewas,) on a large river W. R.; on S. fork Columbia r. iv. 25.
FOLLES AVOINES, the French so called the Menominies.
FOND DU LAC, roam from Snake River to the Sandy Lakes.
FOWL-TOWNS, (Seminoles,) 12 m. E. Fort Scott; about 300 in 1820. 
FOXES, (Ottagamies,) called Renards by the French; dispossessed by B. Hawk’s war.

GANAWESE, on the heads of Potomac River; same as Kanhaways, probably.
GAYHEAD, Martha’s Vineyard; 200 in 1800; in 1820, 340.
GRAND RIVER, on Grand r., N. side L. Ontario; Mohawks, Senecas, and oth.; 2,000.
GROS VENTRES, W. Mississippi, on Maria River, in 1806; in 1834, 3,000.

HARE- FOOT, next S. of the Esquimaux, and in perpetual war with them.
HALLIBEES, a tribe of Creeks, destroyed in 1813. iv. 57.
HANNAKALLAL, 600 in 1820, on Pacific, S. Columbia, next beyond the Luckkarso.
HASSANAMESITS, a tribe of Nipmuks, embraced Christianity in 1660. ii. 51, 115.
HIHIGHENIMMO, 1,300 in 1820, from mouth of Lastaw River, up it to the forks.
HELLWITS, 100 m. along the Columbia, from the falls upward, on the N. side.
HERRING POND, a remnant of Wampanoags, in Sandwich, Mass.; about 40.
HIETANS, (Camanches,) erratic bands ; from Trinity to Brazos, and Red River.
HINI, (Cadodache,) 200 in 1820, on Angelina r., between Red r. and Rio del Norte.
HITCHITTEES, once on Chattahoochee r.; 600 now in Arkansas; speak Muskogee.
HOHILPOS, (Tushepahas,) 300 in 1820, above great falls on Clark’s River.
HUMAS, (Oumas,) Red nation, ” in Ixsussees Parish, La., in 1805, below Manchak.
HURONS, (Wyandots, Quatoghies,) adjacent, and N. gt. lakes; subd. by Iroq., 1650.

ILLINOIS, ” the lake of men, ” both sides Illinois r.; 12,000 in 1670; 60 towns in 1700.
INIES, OF TACHIES, [Texas?] branch Sabine; 80 men in 1806; speak Caddo.
IOWAYS, on loway River before Black Hawk’s war; 1,100 beyond the Mississippi.
IROQUOI, 1606, on St. Lawrence, below Quebec; 1687, both sides Ohio, to Miss. v. 3.
ISATIS, Sometimes a name of the Sioux before 1755.
ITHKYEMAMITS, 600 in 1820, on N. side Columbia, near the Cathlaskos.

JELAN, one of three tribes of Camanches, on sources Brazos, del Norte, &c.

KADAPAUS, a tribe in N. Carolina in 1707.
KAHUNKLES, 400 in 1820, W. Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
KALOOSAS, a tribe found early in Florida, long since extinct.
KANENAVISH, on the Padoucas’ fork of the Platte; 400 in 1805.
KANHAWAS, Ganawese or Canhaways; on the River Kanhawa, formerly.
KANSAS, on the Arkansas River; about 1,000 in 1836; in 1820 , 1,850.
KASKASKIAS, (Illin.,) on a river of same name flowing into the Mississ.; 250 in 1797.
KASKAYAS, between sources of the Platte and Rocky Mountains; 3,000 in 1836.
KATTEKA, (Padoucas,) not located by travellers. See PADOUCAS.
KEEKATSA, (Crows,) both sides Yellowstone, above mouth Big Horn r.; 3,500 in 1805.
KEYCHE, E. branch Trinity River in 1806; once on the Sabine; 260 in 1820.
KIAWAS, on Padouca River, beyond the Kites; 1,000 in 1806.
KIGENE, on the shore of Pacific Ocean in 1821, under the chief Skittegates.
KIKAPOO, formerly in Illinois; now about 300, chiefly beyond the Mississippi.
KILLAMUK, a branch of the Clatsops, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean; about 1,000.
KILLAWAT, in a large town on the coast of the Pacific, E. of the Luktons.
KILLAXTHOCLES, 100 in 1820, at the mouth of Columbia River, on N. side.
KIMOENIMS, a band of the Chopunnish, on Lewis’s River; 800 in 1820, in 33 clans.
KINAI, about Cook’s Inlet, on the coast of the Pacific Ocean.
KITES, (Staetans,) between sources Platte and Rocky Mountains; about 500 in 1820.
KISKAKONS inhabited Michilimakinak in 1680; a Huron tribe.
KNISTENAUX, on Assinnaboin River; 5,000 in 1812; numerous; women comely.
KONAGENS, Esquimaux, inhabiting Kadjak Island, lat. 58°, lon. 152° W.
KOOK-KOO – OOSE, on the coast of the Pacific, S. of the Killawats 1,500 in 1835.
KUSKARAWAOKS, one of six tribes on E. shore of Chesapeak in 1607; (Tuscaroras?)

LAHANNA, 2,000 in 1820, both sides Columbia, above the mouth of Clark’s River.
LAPANNE. See APACHES. LARTIELO, 600 in 1820, at the falls of Lastaw River, below Wayton Lake.
LEAF, (Sioux, ) 600 in 1820, on the Missouri, above Prairie du Chien.
LEECH RIVER, about 350 in 1820, near Sandy Lake, lat. 46° 9′ N.
LENNA LENAPE, once from Hudson to Delaware River; now scattered in the West. 9EBel37285JI14
LIPANTS, 800 in 1816, from Rio Grande to the interior of Texas; light hair.
LOUCHEUX, next N. of the Esquimaux, or S of lat. 67° 15′ N.
LUKAWIS, 800 in 1820, W. of the Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.
LUKKARSO, 1,200 in 1820, coast of Pacific, S. of Columbia r., beyond the Shallalah.
LUKTONS, 20 in 1820, W. of the Rocky Mountains; abode unknown.

MACHAPUNGAS, in N. Carolina in 1700; practised circumcision.
MANDANS, 1,250in 1805, 1200 m. fm. mouth of Misso.; 1838, reduced to 21 by sm. pox.
MANGOAGS, OF TUTELOES, (Iroquois,) Nottoway River, formerly; now extinct.
MANHATTANS, (Mohicans,) once on the island where New York city now stands.
MANNAHOAKS, once on the upper waters of the Rappahannock r.; extinct long ago.
MARACHITES, (Abenakies,) on the St. Johns; a remnant remains.
MARSAPEAGUES, once on Long Island, S. side of Oyster Bay; extinct.
MARSHPEES, (Wampanoags,) 315 in 1832; Barnstable Co., Mass.; mixed with blacks.
MASCOUTINS, OF FIRE IND., betw. Mississ. and L. Michigan, 1665; (Sacs and Foxes?)
MASSACHUSETTS, the state perpetuates their name. ii. 42.
MASSAWOMES, (Iroquois,) once spread over Kentucky.
MATHLANOBS, 500 in 1820, on an island in the mouth of Wallaumut River, W. R.
MAYES, 600 in 1805, St. Gabriel Creek, mouth of Guadaloupe River, Louisiana.
MENOMINIES, (Algonkins,) once on Illinois r.; now 300, W. Mississ. v. 142-4, 171.
MESSASSAGNES, 2,000 in 1764, N. of, and adjacent to, L. Huron and Superior. v. 4, n.
MIAMIS, (Algonkins,) once on the r. of their name; now 1,500, beyond the Mississ.
MIKASAUKIES, (Seminoles,) about 1,000 in 1821; very warlike. iv. 93, 128.
MIKMAKS, (Algonkins,) 3,000 in 1760, in Nova Scotia; the Suriquois of the French.
MIKSUKSEALTON, (Tushepaha,) 300 in 1820, Clark’s River, above great falls, W. R.
MINETARES, 2,500 in 1805, 5 m. above the Mandans, on both sides Knife River.
MINDAWARCARTON, in 1805, on both sides Mississippi, from St. Peters upward.
MINGOES, once such of the Iroquois were so called as resided upon the Scioto River.
MINSI, Wolftribe of the Lenna Lenape, once over New Jersey and part of Penn.
MISSOURIES, once on that part of the River just below Grand River.
MITCHIGAMIES, one of the five tribes of the Illinois; location uncertain.
MOHAWKS, head of Five Nations; formerly on Mohawk r.; a few now in Canada.
MOHEGANS, or MOHEAKUNNUKS, in 1610, Hudson r. from Esopus to Albany. ii. 87,97.
MONACANS, (Tuscaroras,) once near where Richmond, Virginia, now is.
MONGOULATCHES, on the W. side of the Mississippi. See BAYAGOULAS.
MONTAGNES, (Algonkins,) N. side St. Lawr., betw. Saguenay and Tadousac, in 1609.
MONTAUKS, on E. end of Long Island, formerly; head of 13 tribes of that island.
MORATOKS, 80 in 1607; 40 in 1669, in Lancaster and Richmond counties, Virginia.
MOSQUITOS, once a numerous race on the E. side of the Isthmus of Darien.
MULTNOMAHS, (Wappatoo,) 800 in 1820, mouth of Multnomah River, W. R.
MUNSEYS, (Delawares,) in 1780, N. branch Susquehannah r.; to the Wabash in 1808.
MUSKOGEES, 17,000 in 1775, on Alabaina and Apalachicola Rivers. See B. iv. 24.

NABEDACHES, (Caddo,) on branch Sabine, 15 m. above the Inies; 400 in 1805.
NABIJOS, betw N. Mexico and the Pacific; live in stone houses, and manufacture.
NANDAKOES, 120 in 1805, on Sabine, 60 m. W. of the Yattassees; (Caddo.)
NANTIKOKES, 1711, on Nantikoke River; 1755, at Wyoming; same year went west.
NARCOTAH, the name by which the Sioux know themselves.
NARRAGANSETS, S. side of the bay which perpetuates their name. ii. 21, 23, 38, 53.
NASHUAYS, (Nipmuks) on that river from its mouth, in Massachusetts.
NATCHEZ, at Natchez; discovered, 1701; chiefly destroyed by French, 1720. iv. 43.
NATCHITOCHES, once at that place; 100 in 1804; now upon Red River.
NATEOTETAINS, 200 in 1820, W. R., on a river of their name, W. of the Facullies.
NATIKS, (Nipniuks,) in Massachusetts, in a town now called after them.
NECHACOKE, (Wappatoo,) 100 in 1820, S. side Columbia, near Quicksand r., W. R.
NEEKEETOO, 700 in 1820, on the Pacific, S. of the Columbia, beyond the Youicone.
NEMALQUINNER, (Wappatoo,) 200 in 1820, N. side Wallaumut River, 3 m. up.
NIANTIKS, a tribe of the Narragansets, and in alliance with them. ii. 67.
NICARIAGAS, once about Michilimakinak ; joined Iroquois in 1723, as seventh nation.
NIPISSINS, (original Algonkins,) 400 in 1764, near the source of Ottoway River.
NIPMUKS, eastern interior of Mass.; 1,500 in 1775; extinct. ii. 18, 40, 100; iii. 91.
NORRIDGEWOKS, (Abenakies,) on Penobscot River. See Book iii. 119, 127.
NOTTOWAYS, on Nottoway River, in Virginia; but 2 of clear blood in 1817.
NYACKS, (Mohicans,) or MANHATTANS, once about the Narrows, in New York.

OAKMULGES, (Muskogees,) to the E. of Flint River; about 200 in 1834.
OCAMECHES, in Virginia in 1607; had before been powerful; then reduced. (CHEES. See UCHEES -Perhaps Ochesos ; 230 in Florida in 1826, at Ochee Bluff.
OCONAS, (Creeks.) See Book iv. 29.
OJIBWAS, (Chippeways,) 30,000 in 1836, about the great lakes, and N. of them.
OKATIOKINANS, (Seminoles,) 580 in 1820, near Fort Gaines, E. side Mississippi.
OMAHAS, 2,200 in 1820, on Elkhorn River, 80 m. from Council Bluffs. v. 136, 137.
ONEIDAS, one of the Five Nations; chief seat near Oneida Lake, New York. v. 4.
ONONDAGAS, one of the Five Nations; formerly in New York; 300 in 1840. v. 4.
OOTLASHOOTS, (Tushepahas,) 400 in 1820, on Clark’s River, W. Rocky Mountains.
OSAGES, 4,000 in 1830, about Arkansas and Osage Rivers; many tribes.
OTAGAMIES, Winnebagoes,) 300 in 1780, betw. Lake of the Woods and the Missis.
OTOES, 1,500 in 1820; in 1805, 500; 15 leagues up the River Platte, on S. side.
OTTAWAS, 1670, removed from L. Superior to Michilimakinak; 2,800 in 1820. v.41.
OUIATANONS, OF WAAS, (Kikapoos,) mouth of Eel r., Ind., 1791, in a village 3 m. long.
OUMAS, E. bank Mississippi in 1722, in 2 villages, quarter of a mile from the river.
OWASSISSAS, (Seminoles,) 100 in 1820, on E. waters of St. Mark’s River. Ozas, 2,000 in 1750; on Ozaw River in 1780, which flows into the Mississippi.
OZIMIES, one of the six tribes on E. shore of Maryland and Virginia in 1607. X

PACANAS, on Quelquechose River, La.; 30 men in 1805; 40 m. S. W. Natchitoches.
PADOUCAS, 2,000 warriors in 1724, on the Kansas; dispersed before 1805.
PADOWAGAS, by some the Senecas were so called; uncertain.
PAILSH, 200 in 1820, on coast of the Pacific, N. Columbia r., beyond the Potoashs.
PALACHES, a tribe found early in Florida, but long since extinct.
PAMLICO, but 15 in 1708, about Pamlico Sound, in N. Carolina; extinct.
PANCAS, once on Red River, of Winnipec 1.; afterwards joined the Omahas.
PANIS, (Tonicas,) 40 vill . in 1750, S. br. Missouri; 70 vill . on Red r., 1755. ii. 36.
PANNEH. See ALLAKAWEAH, 2,300 in 1805, on heads Big Horn River.
PASCATAWAYS, once a considerable tribe on the Maryland side Potomac River.
PASCAGOULAS, 25 men in 1805, on Red r., 60 m. below Natchitoches; from Florida.
PASSAMAQUODDIE, on Schoodak r., Me., in Perry Pleasant Point, a small number.
PAUNEE, 10,000 in 1820, on the Platte and Kansas; Republicans, Loupes, and Picts.
PAWISTUCIENEMUK, 500 in 1820; small, brave tribe, in the prairies of Missouri.
PAWTUCKETS, (Nipmuks,) on Merrimac River, where Chelmsford now is; extinct.
PEGANS, (Nipmuks,) 10 in 1793, in Dudley, Mass., on a reservation of 200 acres.
PELLOATPALLAH, (Chopunnish,) 1,600 in 1820, on Kooskooskee r., above forks, W. R.
PENOBSCOTS, (Abenakies,) 330, on an island in Penobscot r., 12 m. above Bangor.
PENNAKOOKS, (Nipmuks,) on Merrimac r., where is now Concord, N. H. iii. 94, 95.
PEORIAS, 97 in 1820, on Current River; one of the five tribes of the Illinois.
PEQUAKETS, (Abenakies,) on sources Saco River; destroyed by English in 1725.
PEQUOTS, about the mouth of Connecticut River; subdued in 1637. ii. 101-110.
PHILLIMEES, (Seminoles,) on or near the Suane River, Florida, in 1817.
PIANKASHAWS, 3,000 once, on the Wabash; in 1780, but 950; since driven west.
PIANKATANK, a tribe in Virginia when first settled; unlocated.
PINESHOW, (Sioux,) 150 in 1820, on the St. Peter’s, 15 m. from its mouth.
PISHQUITPAH, 2,600 in 1815, N. side Columbia River, at Muscleshell Rapids, W. R.
POTOASH, 200 in 1820, coast Pacific, N. mouth Columbia, beyond Clamoctomichs.
POTTOWATTOMIE, 1671, on Noquet i., L. Michigan; 1681, at Chicago. v. 141, 142.
POWHATANS, 32 tribes spread over Virginia when first discovered by the English. iv. 4.
PUANS, the Winnebagoes were so called by the French at one period.

QUABAOGS, (Nipmuks,) at a place of the same name, now Brookfield, Mass.
QUAPAW, 700 in 1820, on Arkansas r., opp. Little Rock; reduced by sm. pox in 1720.
QUATHLAHPOHTLES, on S. W. side Columbia, above mouth Tahwahnahiook River.
QUATOGHIE, (Wyandots,) once, S. side L. Michigan; sold their lands to Eng. in 1707.
QUESADAS. See CooSADAS. QUIEETSOS, on the Pacific; 250 in 1820 ; N. Columbia r. , next N. of the Quiniilts.
QUINIILTS, on coast of the Pacific, N. of Columbia r.; 250 in 1820; next the Pailshs.
QUINNECHART, coast Pacific, next N. Calasthocles, N. Columbia r.; 2,000 in 1820.
QUINNIPISSA are those called Bayagoulas by the Chevalier Tonti.
QUODDIES. See PASSAMAQUODDIE. -3 Coll. Mass. Hist. Soc. iii. 181.

REDGROUND, (Seminoles,) 100 in 1820, on Chattahoochie r., 12 m. above Florida line.
REDKNIFE, SO called from their copper knives; roam in the region of Slave Lake.
RED-STICK, (Seminoles,) the Baton Rouge of the French. iv. 64.
RED- WING, (Sioux,) on Lake Pepin, under a chief of their name; 100 in 1820.
RICAREE, (Paunees,) before 1805, 10 large vill. on Missouri r.; reduced by sm. pox.
RIVER, (Mohegans,) S. of the Iroquois, down the N. side of Hudson r. iii. 97; v. 14.
ROUND- HEADS, (Hurons,) E. side Lake Superior; 2,500 in 1764.
RYAWAS, on the Padouca fork of the Missouri; 900 in 1820.

SACHDAGUGHS, (Powhatans,) perhaps the true name of the Powhatans.
SANKHIKANS, the Delawares knew the Mohawks by that name.
SANTEES, a small tribe in N. Carolina in 1701, on a river perpetuating their name.
SAPONIES, (Wanamies,) Sapona River, Carolina, in 1700; joined Tuscaroras, 1720.
SATANAS, a name, it is said, given the Shawanees by the Iroquois.
SAUKE, or SAC, united with Fox before 1805 then on Mississ., above Illinois. v.142.
SAUTEURS, OF FALL INDIANS of the French, about the falls of St. Mary.
SAVANNAHS, SO called from the river, or the river from them; perhaps Yamasees.
SCATTAKOOKS, upper part of Troy, N. Y.; went from New England about 1672.
SEMINOLES have been established in Florida a hundred years. iv. ubi supra.
SENECAS, one of the Five Nations; “ranged many thousand miles ” in 1700. v. 4.
SEPONES, in Virginia in 1775, but a remnant. See SAPONIES.
SERRANNA, (Savannahs?) in Georgia; nearly destroyed by the Westoes about 1670.
SEWEES, a small tribe in N. Carolina, mentioned by Lawson in 1710.
SHALLALAH, 1,200 in 1816, on the Pacific, S. Columbia r., next the Cookkoo- oosee.
SHALLATTOOS, on Columbia River, above the Skaddals; 100 in 1820.
SHANWAPPONE, 400 in 1820, on the heads of Cataract and Taptul Rivers.
SHAWANE, once over Ohio; 1672, subdued by Iroquois; 1,383 near St. Louis in 1820.
SHEASTUKLE, 900 in 1820, on the Pacific, S. Columbia r., next beyond the Youitz.
SHINIKOOKS, a tribe of Long Island, about what is now South Hampton.
SHOSHONEE, 30,000 in 1820, on plains N. Missouri; at war with the Blackfeet.
SHOTO, (Wappatoo,) 460 in 1820, on Columbia River, opposite mouth of Wallaumut.
SICAUNIES, 1,000 in 1820, among the spurs of the Rocky Mounts., W. of the Rapids.
SIOUX, discovered by French, 1660; 33,000 in 1820, St. Peter’s, Missis., and Misso. r.
SISSATONES, upper portions of Red r., of L. Winnipec and St. Peter’s, in 1820.
SITKA, on King George III. Islands, on the coast of the Pacific, about lat. 57° N.
SIX NATIONS, (Iroquois,) Mohawk, Seneca, Onondaga, Oneida, Cayuga, Shawane.
SKADDALS, on Cataract River, 25 m. N. of the Big Narrows; 200 in 1820.
SKEETSOMISH, 2,000 in 1820, on a river of their name flowing into the Lastaw.
SKILLOOT, on Columbia River, from Sturgeon Island upward; 2,500 in 1820.
SKUNNEMOKE, OF TUCKAPAS, on Vermilion River, La., 6 leagues W. of N. Iberia.
SMOKSHOP, On Columbia r., at the mouth of the Labiche; 800 in 1820, in 24 clans.
SNAKE. See ALIATANS, OF SHOSHONEES. SOKOKIE, on Saco River, Maine, until 1725, when they withdrew to Canada.
SOKULK, on the Columbia, above mouth of Lewis’s River; 2,400 in 1820.
SOURIQUOIS, (Mikmaks,) once so called by the early French.
SOUTIES, (Ottowas,) a band probably mistaken for a tribe by the French.
SOYENNOM, (Chopunnish,) on N. side E. fork of Lewis’s River; 400 in 1820; W. R.
SPOKAIN, on sources Lewis’s River, over a large tract of country, W. Rocky Mts.
SQUANNAROO, on Cataract r., below the Skaddals; 120 in 1820; W. Rocky Mts.
STAETANS, on heads Chien r., with the Kanenavish; 400 in 1805; resemble Kiawas.
STOCKBRIDGE, New, (Mohegans and Iroquois,) collected in N. Y., 1786; 400 in 1820.
STOCKBRIDGE, Mass., (Mohegans,) settled there in 1734; went to Oneida in 1786.
ST.JOHN’S, (Abenakies,) about 300 still remain on that river.
SUSQUEHANNOK, on W. shore of Md. in 1607; that river perpetuates their name.
SUSSEES, near sources of a branch of the Saskashawan, W. Rocky Mountains.
SYMERONS, a numerous race, on the E. side of the Isthmus of Darien.

TACULLIES, ” people who go upon water; ” on head waters of Frazier’s River, La.
TAHSAGROUDIE, about Detroit in 1723; probably Tsonothouans.
TAHUACANA, on River Brazo; 3 tribes; 180 m. up; 1,200 in 1820.
TALLAHASSE, (Seminoles,) 15 in 1820, between Oloklikana and Mikasaukie.
TALLEWHEANA, (Seminoles,) 210 in 1820, on E. side Flint River, near the Chehaws.
TAMARONAS, a tribe of the Illinois; perhaps Peorias afterwards.
TAMATLES, (Seminoles,) 7 m. above the Ocheeses, and numbered 220 in 1820.
TARRATINES, E. of Pascataqua River; the Nipmuks so called the Abenakies.
TATTOWHEHALLYS, (Seminoles,) 130 in 1820; since scattered among other towns.
TAUKAWAYS, on the sources of Trinity, Brazos, De Dios, and Colorado Rivers.
TAWAKENOE, ” Three Canes,” W. side Brazos r., 200 m. W. of Nacogdoches, 1804.
TAWAWS, (Hurons,) on the Mawme in 1780, 18 m. from Lake Erie.
TELMOCRESSE, (Seminoles,) W. side Chattahoochee, 15 m. above fork; 100 in 1820.
TENISAW, once on that river which flows into Mobile Bay; went to Red r. in 1765.
TETONS, (Sioux,) “vile miscreants,” on Mississ., Misso., Št. Peter’s; “real pirates.”
TIONONTATIES, or DINONDADIES, a tribe of Hurons, or their general name.
TOCKWоGHS, one of the six tribes on the Chesapeak in 1607.
TONICAS, 20 warriors in 1784, on Mississippi, opp. Point Coupé; once numerous.
TONKAHANS, & nation or tribe of Texans, said to be cannibals.
TONKAWA, 700 in 1820, erratic, about Bay St. Bernardo.
TOTEROS, on the mountains N. of the Sapones, in N. Carolina, in 1700.
TOTUSKEYS. See MORATOKS. xii TOWACANNO, or TowоASH, one of three tribes on the Brazos. See TAHUACANA. TSONONTHOUANS, Hennepin so called the Senecas; by Cox, called Sonnontovans.
TUKABATCHE, on Tallapoosie River, 30 m. above Fort Alabama, in 1775.
TUNICA, (Mobilian,) on Red River, 90 m. above its mouth; but 30 in 1820.
TUNXIS, (Mohegans,) once in Farmington, Conn.; monument erected to them, 1840.
TUSHEPAHAS, and ОOTLASHOOTS, 5,600 in 1820, on Clark’s and Missouri Rivers.
TUSCARORA, on Neus r., N. Carolina, till 1712; a few now in Lewiston, Niagara r.
TUTELOES. See MANGOAKS, or MANGOAGS. TUTSEEWA, on a river W. Rocky Mts., supposed to be a branch of the Columbia.
TWIGHTWEES, (Miamies,) in 1780, on the Great Miami; so called by the Iroquois.

UCHEE, once on Chattauchee r., 4 towns; some went to Florida, some west. iv. 141.
UFALLAH, (Seminoles,) 670 in 1820, 12 m. above Fort Gaines, on Chattahoochee r.
UGALJACHMUTZI, a tribe about Prince William’s Sound, N. W. coast.
ULSEAH, on coast of the Pacific, S. Columbia, beyond the Neekeetoos; 150 in 1820.
UNALACHTGO, one of the three tribes once composing the Lenna Lenape.
UNAMIES, the head tribe of Lenna Lenape.
UNCHAGOGS, a tribe anciently on Long Island, New York.
UPSAROKA, (Minetare,) commonly called Crows.

WAAKICUM, 30 m. up Columbia River, opposite the Cathlamats; 400 in 1836.
WABINGA, (Iroquois,) between W. branch of Delaware and Hudson r. B. iii. 97, n.
WACO, (Panis,) 800 in 1820, on Brazos River, 24 m. from its mouth.
WAHOWPUMS, on N. branch Columbia River, from Lapage r upward; 700 in 1806.
WAHPATONE, (Sioux,) rove in the country on N. W. side St. Peter’s River.
WAHPACOOTA, (Sioux?) in the country S. W. St. Peter’s in 1805; never stationary.
WAMESITS, (Nipmuks,) once on Merrimac River, where Lowell, Mass., now is.
WAMPANOAG, perhaps the 3d nation in importance in N. E. when settled by the Eng.
WAPPINGS, at and about Esopus in 1758; also across the Hudson to the Minsi.
WARANANCONGUINS, supposed to be the same as the Wappings.
WASHAWS, on Barrataria Island in 1680, considerable; 1805, at Bay St. Fosh, 5 only.
WATEREES, once on the river of that name in S. Carolina, but long since extinct.
WATEPANETO, on the Padouca fork of the Platte, near Rocky Mts.; 900 in 1820.
WAWENOKS, (Abenakies,) once from Sagadahock to St. George River, in Maine.
WAXSAW, once in S. Carolina, 45 m. above Camden; name still continues.
WEAS, or WAAS, (Kikapoos.) See OUIATANONS.
WEKISA, (Semin.,) 250 in 1820, W. side Chattahoochee, 4 m. above the Cheskitaloas.
WELCH, said to be on a southern branch of the Missouri. Book i. 36, 37, 38.
WESTOES, in 1670, on Ashley and Edisto Rivers, in S. Carolina.
WETEPAHATO, with the Kiawas, in 70 lodges in 1805, Padouca fork of Platte River.
WHEELPO, on Clark’s River, from the mouth of the Lastaw; 2,500 in 1820; W. R.
WHIRLPOOLS, (Chikamaugas) so called from the place of their residence.
WHITE, W. of Mississippi River; mentioned by many travellers. See Book i. 38.
WIGHCOMOCOS, one of the six tribes in Virginia in 1607, mentioned by Smith.
WILLEWAHS, (Chopunnish,) 500 in 1820, on Willewah r., which falls into Lewis’s.
WINNEBAGO, on S. side Lake Michigan until 1832; Ottagamies , &c . v. 141-143.
WOLF, Loups of the French; several nations had tribes so called.
WOKKON, 2 leagues from the Tuscaroras in 1701; long since extinct.
WOLLAWALLA, on Columbia r., from above Muscleshell Rapids, W. Rocky Mts.
WYANDOTS, (Hurons) a great seat at Sandusky in 1780; warlike.
WYCOMES, on the Susquehannah in 1648, with some Oneidas, 250.
WYNIAWS, a small tribe in N. Carolina in 1701.

YAMACRAW, at the bluff of their name in 1732, near Savannah, about 140 men.
YAMASEE, S border of S. Carolina; nearly destroyed in 1715 by English. iv. 138.
YAMPERACK, (Camanches,) 3 tribes about sources Brazos, del Norte, &c; 1817, 30,000.
YANKTONS, in the plane country adjacent to E. side of the Rocky Mountains.
YATTASSEE, in Louisiana, 50 m. from Natchitoches, on a creek falling into Red r.
YAZOOS, formerly upon the river of their name, extinct in 1770 iv. 25.
YEAHTENTANEE, on banks St. Joseph’s r., which flows into L. Michigan, in 1760.
YEHAH, above the rapids of the Columbia in 1820; 2,800, with some others.
YELETPOO, (Chopunnish) 250 in 1820, on Weancum r., under S. W. Mountain.
YOUICONE, on the Pacific, next N of the mouth of Columbia River; 700 in 1820.


Most every part of the buffalo was used by the Native Americans.
(see What part of the bison was used?)


1844 , the American artist George Catlin revealed the following:
“There are, by a fair calculation, more than 300,000 Indians, who are now subsisted on the flesh of the buffaloes, and by those animals supplied with all the luxuries of life which they desire, as they know of none others. The great variety of uses to which they convert the body and parts of that animal, are almost incredible to the person who has not actually dwelt amongst these people, and closely studied their modes and customs.”

Plains Indians exhibited great skill and ingenuity in turning the natural materials they found around them into tools and materials to help them survive. They used stones, bones, shells, clay, hides, hair, and wood to make tools and implements. But, one of their greatest natural resources was the bison.

The bison was crucial to the life of the Plains Native Americans. For most tribes here, their lives were centered around the bison hunt.

The Native Americans of eastern Nebraska in the late 1600s and early 1700s developed a system of seasonal travel carefully planned to put them at the right place at the right time to make the best use of the right resource. Between planting in the spring and harvesting in the fall, the tribes left their permanent villages to hunt game, particularly bison.

Each bison provided the tribes with a wealth of different raw materials above and beyond the meat. A bison bull in good condition might weigh more than 2,000 pounds and provide about 800 pounds of useable meat. Cows weighed from 700 to 1,200 pounds, and provided an average of 400 pounds of meat. Horns were fashioned into spoons or scoops. The extra thick hide on the top of the head became a bowl. The heart was used as a sack to carry dried meat. The furry hide was tanned and used by the tribe as the walls of their tepees. Later, these hides became a thriving trade item for them. Even the stomach could be used as a cooking vessel. The stomach would be filled with water, meat, herbs and wild onions. Then hot rocks were placed into the mixture to bring it to a boil. A little later, the tribe had stew.

Although each tribe had slightly different techniques, hunters had two basic ways to hunt the bison. A large party of Indians would often surround a herd and then attack, trying to keep the herd milling yet prevent it from stampeding. Large numbers could be killed using this method. A less efficient and more dangerous method was to run the herd and attempt to kill as many as possible on horseback while the animals fled.

Until the introduction of the repeating rifles in the late 1860s, the use of the bow and arrow was the preferred weapon for communal hunts. If hunts were organized so that each man hunted for his own family, his kills could be identified by the markings on his arrows. Selected hunters were assigned the task of hunting for the poor or those families that did not have an active hunter. Even after French traders began to introduced muzzle-loading muskets as a trade good, the bow and arrow was still used. It was almost impossible to ride a galloping horse and reload a muzzle-loading gun.
Following successful hunts there were days of feasting and hard work. The usual butchering process involved men placing the bison on its belly and removing the hide in two sections, divided along the backbone. Then, the meat had to be cut into long thin sheets and dried in the sun. The dried meat was light, portable, and well preserved. source:


Bison dance by the Mandan Indians in front of the Medezin hut in Mih-Tutta-Hangkusch.
1840-1843 Germany Postcard

Bison Dance 1840-1843


The Times
New Orleans, June 20, 1846
The Daily Picayune.

The Prairie Indians and the Treaty

We are at last placed in possession of the letters of our correspondent from the scene of the late treaty with the Comanches and other Prairie Indians. Our correspondent not returning directly with the Commissioners, but diverging to the seat of war on the Rio Grande, his letters have been somewhat delayed: they will not be the less interesting, however, and will serve to correct some erroneous details given by the press in regard to the terms of the treaty, while they supply a fund of information touching the Prairie Indians generally.

Both the Commissioners underwent heavy privations from exposure to cold and other annoyances during a rigorous and inclement season, and amidst conflicting elements of discord, which they found it difficult to allay; but they have the satisfaction of believing that the results of their labors will far outweigh all their personal sacrifices.

The Commissioners, we are authorized to say, believe most confidently that the treaty has been entered into in good faith on the part of the Indian, and that by a little timely attention, which will certainly be given, all the Prairie Indians may be controlled, and that peace and safety of the frontier permanently secured. According to the best information of the Commissioners were able to obtain, these Prairie or border Indians consist of 22,000 souls, of which the Comanches are the master spirits, and constitute about 13,000 souls; subdivided into six different bands with distinct organizations, all speaking the same language, but barely uniting or acting in concert. They make no corn, but live entirely upon the chase of the buffalo and the mustang, and by continuous predatory excursions upon the Northern Mexican provinces. The next in numbers and importance are the Kiaways, numbering about 3500 souls, of the same character and vocation. The next are the Essequetas and Muscalaroes, numbering about 4000 souls. They are recently from the provinces of Mexico, and are a corn-planting, improving people. The Wichetswes, Toweyash, Wacoes, Keechies Tiwoekenies, five little tribes, and although distinct tribes, speaking different languages, from long association and intermarriages, are much the same people. They average about 140 souls each tribe; they plant corn and have settled residences and villages, but are the most notorious horse-thieves in the prairies. The loonies, Annodarcoes and Caddoes, are in much the same condition. They number about 1000 souls, and plant corn, pumpkin, etc. They live upon the Brazos river, nearest to the white settlements. The Lipans and Tonkaways, numbering about 800 souls, have heretofore been allies of Texas, inhabiting the country about San Antonio, and depending upon game for subsistence. These, with a few renegade Kickapoo’s, numbering about 300 souls; Cherokees about 60; Delawares and Shawnees about 50, constitute the different tribes of Indians that were in attendance, and parties to the late treaty. With these preliminary remarks, we proceed to lay the letters of our correspondent “Buffalo Hump” before our readers: [SPECIAL CORRESPONDENCE OF THE PICAYUNE.] COUNCIL SPRINGS, BRAZOS RIVER, MAY 13, 1846.

‘Editors of the Picayune:

Gentlemen: I am an occasional sojourner at this place, though not a party to the contract or pending negotiations, and will, with your leave, give you occasionally an item of what is transpiring in this wild country.

The Council are in full blast: Present, the Commissioners and the Representatives of from ten to twelve distinct band of Indians. Some of these entire bands are present; others are represented by their chiefs and head men. They are as follows: Comanches, 12,500, Wichetawes, 150: Towyash, 150: Keechies, 140: Wacoes, 130: Tiwockonies, 160: Lonies, 250; Annodarcoes, 350; Caddoes, 300; Lepans, 120; Tonqueaways, 750; Essequeyas, 3500; Muscalaroes, 400; a few renegade Kickapoos, 300; Cherokees,60; Delawares, 30; Shawnees,20; and Biluxies, 10; constitute the number assembled here.

Ascertaining their number only by their lodges, which average from two to twelve souls, they number about the amount set opposite each tribe, from which it will appear that there are between 18 and 20,000 souls. Of this number about 2000 are a corn planting people, the balance depend entirely upon the chase, and their predatory habits of stealing, plundering, etc.

The Comanches are Indians of decided rank and influence in the prairie; they are a fine looking, athletic people, and seemed to feel their superiority. They are known upon the prairies by the general appellations by all the Indians of Pah-to-cahae , subdivided into six distinct organizations, such as
Yam-pe-rick-oes, or root diggers;
Hoo-eisk, or honey-eaters;
Coo-ebe-tack-ies, or buffalo-eaters;
Pe-na-tah-es, or timber people;
Te-nay-wish, or dog-eaters;
Noe_tha, or the people in the desert.
But two of these bands inhabit the South, or encounter the Texans.

In Council to-day, they have smoked, talked and hugged. The Presidents talk has been delivered to them, with which they are much pleased. This talk is short and to the point- being in amount: I send my two Captains, Butler and Lewis, to smoke the pipe and talk to you. Listen to their tongue, and follow their counsel. I have directed them to give you some presents. I have never seen I red children of the Prairie, but I wish and hope to do so soon. You must quit your warning and stealing with your white brothers.

The Council have adjourned to meet again to-morrow. I will write you again by the next express to Austin. I am your humble servant,

~Buffalo Hump.


Jackfish Lake, Alberta, Canada-  latter part of the 1850s December – Winter Hunting

The slipperiness of the ice, which gave us so much trouble in crossing the lake, was turned to good account the other day by the Indians, as they drove a band of buffalo cows so that they had to go out on the ice of the lake, when of course they fell and stumbled , and could make no progress, while their pursuers, approaching them on foot, with ease killed the whole, to the number of 14. -Capt. Palliser’s Expedition


A Monograph of the Genus Bos- 1857
Genus BOS,

The capture of the Bison is effective in various ways, chiefly with the rifle, and on foot. Their sense of smelling, however, is so acute, that they are extremely difficult of approach, scenting their enemy from afar, and retiring with the greatest precipitation. Care, therefore, must be taken to go against the wind, being almost blinded by the long hair hanging over their foreheads. The hunters generally aim at the shoulder, which, if effectively hit, causes them to drop at once; otherwise they are infuriated, and become dangerous antagonist, as was proved with the result of Mr. McDonnell’s adventure.

When flying before their pursuers, it would be in vain for the foremost to halt, or attempt to obstruct the progress of the main body, as the throng in the rear, still rushing onwards, the leader must advance, although destruction await the movement. The Indians take advantage of this circumstance to destroy the great quantities of this favorite game; and certainly no method could be resorted to more ineffectually destructive, nor could a more terrible devastation be produced, then that of forcing a numerous herd of these large animals to leap from the brink of a dreadful precipice upon a rocky and broken surface, a hundred feet below

Tom Lovell print
Our Tom Lovell Print- Buffalo Calling

When the Indians determined to destroy Bisons in this way, one of their swiftest-footed and most active young man is selected, who is disguised in a Bison skin, having the head, ears, and horns adjusted on his own head, so as to make the deception very complete; and thus accoutered, he stations himself between the Bison herd and some of the precipices, which often extend for several miles along the rivers. The Indians around the herd as nearly as possible, when, at a given signal, they show themselves, and rush forward with loud yells. The animals being alarmed, and seeing no way open but in the direction of the disguised Indian, run towards him, and he, taking to flight, dashes onto the precipice, where he suddenly secures himself in some previously ascertained crevice. The foremost of the herd arrives at the brink, there is no possibility of retreat, no chance of escape; the foremost may, for an instant, shrink with tear, but the crowd behind, who are terrified by the approaching hunters, rush forward with increasing impetuosity, and the aggregate force hurls them successfully into the Gulf, where certain death awaits them.

Sometimes there taken by the following method a great number of men divide and form a vast square; each band then set fire to the dry grass of the savanna, where the herds are feeding; seen the fire advance on all sides, they retire in great consternation to the centre of the square; the man then close and kill them without the least hazard.

Great numbers are also taken in pounds, constructed with an embankment of such an elevation as to prevent the return of the Bisons when once they are driven into it. A general slaughter then takes place with rifles or arrows.

The Ojibwe, Ojibwa, Chippewa, or Saulteaux are an Anishinaabe people in what is currently southern Canada and the northern Midwestern United States.John Tanner

“By the end of the second day after we left Pembinah we had not a mouthful to eat, and we were beginning to be very hungry. When we laid down in our camp(near Craneberry River) at night, and put our ears close to the ground, we could hear the tramp of the buffaloes, but when we set up we could hear nothing; and on the following morning nothing could be seen of them; though we could command a very extensive view of the Prairie. As we knew they must not be far off in the direction of the sounds we had heard, eight men, of whom I was one, were selected and dispatch to kill some, and bring the meat to a point where it was agreed the party should stop next night. The noise we could still hear next morning, by applying our ears to the ground; and it seemed about as far distant, and in the same direction as before. We started early, and wrote some hours before we can begin to see them; and we first discovered the margin of the herd, it must have been at least 10 miles distant. It was like a black line drawn along the edge of the sky, or a low sure seen across the lake. The distance of the herd from the place where we first heard them could not have been less than twenty miles. But it was now the rutting season, and the various parts of the herd were all the time kept in rapid motion by severe fights of the bulls. To the noise produced by the knocking together of the two divisions of the hoof, when they raise their feet from the ground, and their incessant tramping, was added the loud and furious roar of the bulls, engaged, as they all were, in their terrific and appalling conflicts. We were conscious that our approach to the herd would not occasion the alarm now, that it would at any other time, and we rode directly towards them. As we came near we killed the wounded bull, which scarcely made an effort to escape from us. He had wounds in his flanks, into which I could put my whole hand. As we knew that the flesh of the bulls was not now good to eat, we did not wish to kill them, though we might easily have shot any number. Dismounting we put our horses in the care of some of our number, who were willing to stay back for that purpose, and then crept into the herd to try to kill some cows. I had separated from the others, and advancing, gotten tangled among the bulls. Before I found an opportunity to shoot a cow, the bulls began to fight very near me. In their fury they were totally unconscious of my presence, and came rushing towards me with such violence, that in some alarm for my safety, I took refuge and one of those holes which are so free: where those animals abound, and which they themselves dig to wallow in. Here I found they were pressing directly upon me, and I was compelled to fire to disperse them, and which I did not succeed until I had killed four them. By this firing the cows were so frightened, that I perceived I should not be able to kill any in this quarter; so regaining my horse, I road to a distant part of the herd, where the Indians had succeeded in killing a fat cow. But from this cow as in usual in similar cases, the herd had all moved off, except one bull, who, when I came up, still kept the Indians at bay. “You are warriors,” said I, as I rode up, ‘going far from your own country, to seek an enemy, but you cannot take his wife from that old bull, who has nothing in his hands.’ So saying, I’ve pass them directly towards the bull, then standing something more than two hundred yards distant. He had no sooner saw me approach, then he came plunging towards me with such impetuosity, that, knowing the danger to my horse and myself, I turned and fled. The Indians laughed heartedly at my repulse, but they did not give over their attempts to get at the cow. By dividing the attention of the bull, and creeping up to him on different sides, they lay at length shot him down. While we were cutting up the cow, the herd were at no great distance; and an old cow, which the Indians supposed to be the mother of the one we had killed, taking the scent of the blood, came running with great violence towards us. The Indians were alarmed and fled, many of them not having their guns in their hands; but I had carefully reloaded mine, and had it ready for use. Throwing myself down close to the body of the cow, and behind it, I waited till the other came up within a few yards of the carcass, when I fired upon her, she turned, gave one or two jumps, and fell dead. We now had the meat of two fact cows, which was as much as we wanted; accordingly we repaired, without delay, to the appointed place, where we found our party, whose hunger was already somewhat allayed by a deer one of them had killed.” John Tanner

The New York Times
New York, New York
25 Oct 1867

Peace Agreed Upon with the Comanches’ and Kiowas’.

Medicine Lodge Creek, Kansas, via Fort Harker, Thursday, Oct 24.
The Commission concluded a treaty to-day with the Kiowa and Comanche tribes. These tribe are to go on a reservation in Indian Territory, on the north fork of Bed River, near Witchelow Mountain. They promise peace and are to receive annually $3,500, an agency house, clothing, provisions, etc. This is no material alteration of the treaty of 1865.
The Commissioners will be delayed six days for the arrival of the hostile Cheyenne, now making medicine sixty mile distant. The treaty with the Arapahoe and Apaches win be concluded to-morrow. The Arapahoe returned to night from pursuit of the Kaw Indians who stole their horses from here a few nights since. They recovered the horses and killed the Kaw Indians.



The Trails Drovers of Texas

By L. B. Anderson of Seguin, Texas (1870’s)

The Indians at the Red Cloud agency in Dakota did not bury their dead under the ground, but would erect a scaffold some eight or ten feet high, place the body thereon and cover it with a red blanket, besides placing a bow and quiver of arrows, with a pot of food on the scaffold for the deceased Indian to use on his journey to the “happy hunting grounds.” Every animal the dead Indian owned was brought to the scaffold and killed. I have seen as many as twelve dead horses at one scaffold and several dead dogs.


Effects of the Extermination.

The buffalo supplied the Indian with food, clothing, shelter, bedding, saddles, ropes, shields, and innumerable smaller articles of use and ornament In the United States a paternal government takes the place of the buffalo in supplying all these wants of the red man, and it costs several millions of dollars annually to accomplish the task.

The following are the tribes which depended very largely—some almost wholly—upon the buffalo for the necessities, and many of the luxuries, of their savage life until the Government began to support them:
The Indians of what was once the buffalo country are not starving and freezing, for the reason that the United States Government supplies them regularly with beef and blankets in lieu of buffalo. Does anyone imagine that the Government could not have regulated the killing of buffaloes, and thus maintained the supply, for far less money than it now costs to feed and clothe those 54,758 Indians! This enumeration (from the census of 1886) leaves entirely out of consideration many thousands of Indians living in the Indian Territory and other portions of the Southwest, who drew an annual supply of meat and robes from the chase of the buffalo, notwithstanding the fact that their chief dependence was upon agriculture.

How is it with the Indians of the British Possessions to-day?

Prof. John Maconn writes as follows in his “Manitoba and the Great Northwest” 

The Bison or Buffalo, in former times, covered the great plains, both in summer and winter, and, to-day, their bones lie bleaching on the prairies from Pembina to the Rocky Mountains, and from the International Boundary to Peace River. It is doubtful whether the great herds passed constantly from the Saskatchewan to Peace River, but this, at any rate, is certain their bones lie on those northern prairies, and their paths yet seam the foot hills of the Rocky Mountains. In the winter of 1870, the last buffalo were killed north of Peace River, but in 1875, about 1000 head were still in existence between the Athabasca and Peace Rivers, north of Little Slave Lake. These are called Wood Buffalo by the hunters but differ only in size from those of the plain. During the last three years, [prior to 1883] the great herds have been kept south of our Boundary, and as the result of this, our Indians have been on the verge of starvation. Where the hills were covered with countless thousands in 1877, the Blackfeet were dying of starvation in 1879. A few returned last fall, but they are only the remnants of the former myriads, and soon these will disappear never to return. While on the plains with the Half-breeds, many a spot has been pointed out where they had a splendid “run.”

During the winter of 1886-’87, destitution and actual starvation prevailed to an alarming extent among certain tribes of Indians in the Northwest Territory who once lived bountifully on the buffalo. A terrible tale of suffering in the Athabasca and Peace River country has recently (1888) come to the minister of the interior of the Canadian government, in the form of a petition signed by the bishop of that diocese, six clergymen and missionaries, and several justices of the peace. It sets forth that “owing to the destruction of game, the Indians, both last winter and last summer, have been in a state of starvation. They are now in a complete state of destitution, and are utterly unable to provide themselves with clothing, shelter, ammunition, or food for the coming winter.” The petition declares that on account of starvation, and consequent cannibalism, a party of twenty-nine Cree Indians was reduced to three in the winter of 1886. Of the Fort Chippewyan Indians, between twenty and thirty starved to death last winter, and the death of many more was hastened by want of food and by famine diseases. Many other Indians—Crees, Beavers, and Chippewyans—at almost all points where there are missions or trading posts, would certainly have starved to death but for the help given them by the traders and missionaries at those places. It is now declared by the signers of the memorial that scores of families, having lost their heads by starvation, are now perfectly helpless, and during the coming winter must either starve to death or eat one another unless help comes. Heart-rending stories of suffering and cannibalism continue to come in from what was once the buffalo plains.

If ever thoughtless people were punished for their reckless improvidence, the Indians and half-breeds of the Northwest Territory are now paying the penalty for the wasteful slaughter of the buffalo a few short years ago. The buffalo is his own avenger, to an extent his remorseless slayers little dreamed he ever could be.


Piegan, Blood, and Blackfeet2,026
Gros Ventres856
Bannack and Shoshone2,001
Nez Percé1,460
Kiowas and Comanches2,756

Next to the buffalo the elk is the animal on which the Indian depends for food. The plains Indians usually stalk them, and are very successful. Not being biased by such puerile considerations as size, appearance, or wealth of antlers, the Red hunter fires at that animal which he is most sure to hit, and, having wounded, is almost sure to bag it, as he will follow its trail for miles, if necessary, with indomitable patience, and the instinct of a hound.
The Utes, Bannocks, and other Indians living on the slopes of the mountains, sometimes make a wholesale slaughter in winter. A herd being discovered, a surround is made, and the elk are driven into a deep snowdrift, where they are butchered at leisure. It is the principal food of these Indians, there being no buffalo in the country.
I have been told that the remnant of a plains tribe (now living in the Indian territory, but the name of which I have forgotten) is very successful in killing elk from horseback. Each hunter is armed with a long pole, light but strong, the small end of which is split and forced open for about a foot, forming a ‘Y’. About six inches from the open end is fastened a knife blade, sharpened to the finest edge, and set diagonally in the Y; that is, one end is farther forward than the other.
The whole is firmly secured by thongs of raw hide. 
A herd being discovered, the hunters make a surround, and dash upon the frightened beasts, which, confused by the sudden onslaught, and having no leader, crowd together. Running up behind the elk, the hunter sets the crotch of his pole against the hind leg, just above the knee ; a sharp push severs the hamstring. The other leg is served in the same way. So quick and noiseless is this work, that it is said not to be unusual for each hunter to secure two or three victims before the herd finally breaks away.” Colonel Dodge 1877


NOTES: in the days when the bison abounded in the United States a pure white specimen was on rare occasions captured by an Indian hunter, and its skin, priceless to the captor, was devoted to religious uses. (Some Tribes, others thought they were bad medicine)


The Buffalo Horse

One good horse was usually considered worth twenty buffalo skins.

What Was a Horse Worth? (

In the early 1800s, on Native trade routes, the going rates for horses were:
1 ordinary riding horse is worth 8 buffalo robes
1 fine racing horse is worth 10 guns
1 fine hunting horse = Options- several pack animals,  1 gun and 100 loads of ammunition,  3 pounds of tobacco,  15 eagle feathers, 10 weasel skins,  5 tipi poles,  1 buffalo-hide tipi cover,  1 skin shirt and leggings decorated with human hair and quills. 

Hunting traits (Blackfoot): The buffalo horse, is a well-trained animal and is used only for hunting, war, and dress parade. Many Blackfoot men regarded their buffalo horses as priceless possessions. –The Horse in Blackfoot Indian Culture by John Canfield Ewers · 1955

Perhaps the best example of private ownership was the horse, which was acquired by Plains Indians in the latter half of the eighteenth century. The horse revolutionized transportation and hunting. A good horse could be ridden into a stampeding buffalo herd so that arrows could be shot at close range. By following the buffalo, the Plains Indians could live a life of abundance.

The horse became one of the Indian’s most important sources of wealth. “A buffalo runner of known ability was worth several common riding horses or pack animals” (Ewers 1958, 78). In Canada in the early 1800s, a buffalo horse could not be purchased with ten guns–a price far greater than any other tribal possession (Barsness 1985, 61).

Given their value, horses were well-cared for and closely guarded. “No system of branding was used, but each person knew the individualities of his horses so that he could recognize them,” writes Clark Wissler (1910, 97). Apparently, disputes over ownership were few, but if a horse was stolen, the offense was punishable by death. Perhaps more than any other asset, the horse reflects the extent to which Indian culture utilized the institution of private ownership. – PERC


Pemmican, mentioned in every frontier yarn, is made by Indian squaws, and consists of lean pieces of Buffalo and dear cut in strips and dried in the sun; it is eaten in the form in which it is dried or reduced to a powder. One important ingredient, dried Buffalo, is no longer included in pemmican preparations. (1917)

Indians dress skins by pegging them down, leather side up, upon a smooth, hard spot of earth; the only substances used is the brains of the animal from which the pelt was taken, and juices of certain berries; this brain-dressing is simply rubbed over and worked into the leather and till it becomes nearly dry, and is then carefully scraped off with the blunt instrument, leaving the pelt perfectly clean and soft. In the era of made haste in bison extermination upon the Western plains of the United States, Indian dressed Buffalo hides, owing to greater care in skinning as well as excellence in dressing, command a higher price in the market then “white-man handled” robes.

Probably the most painful Native American ceremony was the Sun Dance of the Plains people. This involved dancers having skewers implanted in their chest muscles and being attached by rope to the sacred cottonwood tree. In return for their pain, they hoped for a plentiful supply of buffalo. The Ghost Dance was a late addition to Native American belief systems, appearing around 1890. It was believed that the ritual dance would help restore the old way of life before the arrival of the Europeans. The dance promised the return of the buffalo and communication with the spirits of the dead. Although the Ghost Dance (see below) was peaceful, army authorities outlawed its performance.

THE VOW.  (Crow Sun Dance – read more
As stated in the Introduction, there was only one reason for the performance of a sun dance. A man who had lost a child or younger brother more rarely an elder brother killed by the enemy might decide to show the excess of his grief by undergoing the hardest form of mourning, which would at the same time lead to a vision of retaliation, to be followed by a fulfillment of the promise involved in the vision. Such a man would not express his intentions immediately. For a while, he would fast on the prairies and mourn, no one as yet knowing what he was about. After some time he would hear a herald announcing to the camp that the people were to hunt buffalo and get meat for themselves. When he heard this proclamation, the mourner would call the first person who came near him and ask him to send for the chief. The chief came to look at the mourner, who was emaciated and would not look at the chief. “On this hunt,” the mourner would say, ” I want you to have the hunters keep all the tongues, do not let the children eat any; I want them all. “The chief went back and issued an order through the herald who cried: “Save all tongues, he is going to cut ankles! “The pledger’s name was not mentioned. Then the people knew what was going to happen. The mourner no longer stayed away after telling the chief but returned to camp the same night.

1 Cf. my articles on ” The Crow Sun Dance ” (Journal of American Folk- Lore, XXVII, 1914, pp. 94-96 ) and ” Ceremonialism ” (American Anthropologist, XII, 1914, pp . 602-631).

1* Young-crane, a River Crow about eighty years of age, enumerated six, and Strikes both-ways, the oldest Crow living in 1911, recollected only five.



Noticed the tents in the lower center of the photograph,, the UK news states: “the area is one of the longest continuously inhabited landscapes in North American and holds preserved ruins of early indigenous people’s such as The Anasazi and Navajo.”

Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. Photographed in 1873 and situated in northeastern Arizona
Photo by Timothy O’Sullivan Canyon de Chelly National Monument, Arizona. Photographed in 1873 and situated in northeastern Arizona


The Weston Democrat,
Weston West Virginia Aug 28 1871


A United States Indian agent tells a pathetic and tragical story of Standing Buffalo, a noted Indian chief. Buffalo was a friend of the whites, and refused to take up arms against them. A party of Yankton’s came up to the encampment of Standing Buffalo, and urged him to join them in a raid on the Gros Ventres. They talked over the matter two days, and offered Standing Buffalo four horses and other presents if he would join them and lead the party; but he refused, stating that he had pledged his word to me that he and none of his people would go to war. The Yanktons abused and derided him, and finally told him he was a coward and no Chief if he listened to the whites and refused to lead them to war. At last Standing Buffalo became wild with rage and excitement, and declared he would go to war, but he would go to die. He then made disposition of all his horses, property and other effects, giving everything away to relatives and friends; counseled his brother and son and the head men of his tribe to listen when I talked to them, and to abide faithfully by the terms they had made ; that he would never return; would die in battle. He started out and met a large party of Gros Ventres and Assiniboines, far superior to his own in number, on a plain, and charged them. He dashed into their midst himself on his horse, and, without firing a shot, began striking the enemy with his “coo-stick.” He was hit with about thirty shots and fell dead. Standing Buffalo Cir. 1833- June 5th 1871

The Indian Chief “Standing Buffalo.”
Commenting upon the romantic account of the death in battle of “Standing Buffalo Bull,” hereditary Chief of the Upper Sissiton Sioux, sent to the Indian Department by Mr. A. J. Stannous, Special Indian Agent at Milk River Agency, Montana, the St. Paul (Minn,) Pioneer, of the 8th inst., says; “The statement that ‘Standing Buffalo’ was engaged in the Minnesota outbreak is not Strictly true. It is probable that he knew of its commencement and progress, but he was not an active participant in the affair. At the Indian council, held to determine the fate of the white prisoners, ‘ Standing Buffalo’ urged their delivery to General Sibley, ‘and protested against a continuance of the war, and for so doing was branded as a coward by ‘ Little Crow’ and others. He held communication with General Sibley, and while professing great friendship for the whites, resolutely refused to join in any movements against the hostile bands, and finally strayed away to the north-western border, frequently taking refuge in the British possessions. Those who know him best assert that he was a great coward; but physically he was a ‘noble Indian,’ worthy to rank with Fennimore Cooper’s best ideal, ‘At the great council, held at Redwood in 1801 (the year previous to the outbreak), ‘ Standing Buffalo’ was the ‘ observed of all observers.’ While ‘ Red Owl,’ although poorly interpreted, won laurels as an orator, ‘Standing Buffalo’ was most admired of all the chiefs and braves. He was over six feet in height, well proportioned, and as straight as an arrow; his head was crowned with bunches of tall eagle feathers, and his limbs ornamented with all sorts of jingling trinkets; on his naked breast he wore a looking-glass, about four inches square, in a gilt frame, and, armed with bow and arrow, musket and knives, he presented a very warlike appearance. Many of the chiefs were sulky and threatening, but ‘ Standing Buffalo’ was very gracious. His demeanor reassured some timid souls; which had imagined all the horrors that subsequently occurred upon the ground where the council was held.”



Of one fact our journey thoroughly convinced us. Lo’s forte has no connection with the fort of the pale-faces. An unguarded hunter, or a defenseless emigrant wagon, or unarmed railroad laborer, gratifies sufficiently his most warlike ambition. The savages of the plains, in their attacks upon the whites, have been like bees, stinging whenever opportunity offers, and immediately disappearing in space. Their excuses for the murders they commit have been as various as their moods. At one time it is a broken treaty, at another the killing of their buffalo, and trespassing upon the hunting-grounds, and again it is some other grievance. It may be some gratification for them to know that it is estimated that, until within the last three years, a white man’s scalp atoned for each buffalo killed by his race.