1879-AN ACT TO PROTECT BISON
The Independent Record March 4, 1879
AN ACT to protect bison in certain counties in Montana Territory.
Be it enacted by the Legislative Assembly of the Territory of Montana:
Section 1. That any person who shall willfully shoot, or otherwise kill, for the period of ten years from and after the passage of this act, any buffalo or bison, within the Counties of Madison, Jefferson, Deer Lodge and Lewis and Clarke, Montana Territory, shall be fined not less than one hundred dollars, nor more than two hundred dollars, or imprisoned in the county jail not less than two months and not more than six months, or, both such fine and imprisonment, at the discretion of the court.
Sec.2 That the possession of the green hides, or dead bodies, or any part thereof, of any buffalo or bison, by any person, or persons, within the limits of said counties, shall be taken as prima facie evidence that such person, or persons, are guilty of killing the same.
Sec.3 Any person in forming on any person violating the provisions of section one of this act, upon the conviction of such person, be entitled to one-fourth of the find collected.
Sec.4 It is hereby made the duty of the Judges of the District Courts held in the respective counties of Deer Lodge, Jefferson and the Lewis and Clarke, to give in charge to the grand juries of said counties the provisions of this act.
Sec.5 This act shall take effect and be in force from and after its approval.
Approved February 21st, 1879.
The Waterloo Express March 6, 1879
How the Indians Hunt the Bison
Before the horse came into use Indians were obliged to chase the bison on foot, and even at that present day there are many celebrated hunters who are able to run down a bison on foot and kill it with a lance. The mode however, which is generally adopted in the chase by mounted hunters, a chase which offers the greatest results, and exhibits the wildest enthusiasm and excitement. Armed merely with tiny and flint headed arrows, the native hunter mounts his horse, and goes off in chase of the bison.
……When he comes up with the animals, he selects one, usually of fat and well conditioned cow, presses his horse to her, and prepares his bow and arrow. The well-trained horse needs no gilding, but keeps close to the right shoulder of the bison, and a little behind it, so that it may not run upon the horns of the animal if it should happen to stop suddenly and turn its head. This plan, moreover, just bring the rider into the proper position to deliver his arrow in the most deadly manner, i.e., directing that just behind the shoulder. When an arrow is discharged by a practiced hand, it often passes entirely through the bison-he falls mortally wounded, and, tenacious of life as the animal is, soon breathes is last. Leaving the arrow in the wound in order to mark the owner of the dead animal, the successful archer dashes on in pursuit of another animal, and does not cease until he has expanded all his store of arrows.
It is the pride of the native hunter to kill a bison with every arrow, and not shoot twice at the same animal. The young hunters are fierce and anxious rivals in this sport, knowing that the results of the day’s hunt will be the talk of the whole village, and that on their success or failure will much depend the estimation in which they are held.
……Even in those parts of the country where the bow has been almost entirely superseded by firearms, it is equally a point of honor to kill the bison with a single shot and to claim a slain bison for every bullet. In such cases the hunter takes little pains in loading his gun. He carries his powder loose in his pocket or bag, scoops hastily a random quantity into the gun, drops upon it, without any wadding, a bullet wetted in the mouth, and the loading is complete. The muzzle of the gun is uppermost until the moment for firing when the gun is dropped, aimed and fired simultaneously without being brought to the shoulder.
Chicago, Illinois -May 22 1879
SITTING BULL AND OTHER INDIANS
Special Correspondence of the Tribune
Wood Mountains, N.-W. Ter. May 7 –All is quiet here at present, and likely to be so, as the Indians here are well scared at the reading of the Governor – General’s message to the Indians here, in which it was stated that, if any of them committed any depredations on the United States side of the line, they would be arrested and handed over to the United States authorities for trial and punishment; and that, upon any attempt at war upon the United States, they would be viewed as enemies of this Dominion.
Sitting Bull is at present in the neighborhood of Pine Horse Butte, and the camp is around Old Wife’s Lake,-game at present being plentiful.
A party of Nez Perces arrived here, with some American money and blankets: and the Sioux here say that they killed two white men on the Yellowstone. On the slightest confirmation of this River, they will at once be arrested and held until the American authorities are heard from.
A few young men from the Cheyenne camp arrived about a month ago. They report that a good many lodges will attempt to come north across the line this summer. There is a constant intercourse between these camps in the Agencies.
Close observers of the Indians here have the Indian question tolerably well solved. In the winter, when game is scarce and starvation stairs the Indian in the face, he will talk about going back to the Agencies; but, when there is anything to eat, there is not the slightest wish to return. Now, wild fowl, antelope, and buffalo being tolerably plentiful, the Indians behaved well, and are perfectly well satisfied to stay here.
Big Bear, a Cree Chief who has never made a treaty with the authorities, has sent runners to Sitting Bull’s camp, inviting him in his camp to come and join his camp on the Saskatchewan. Sitting Bull in camp have decided to join him, and are at present en route.
Atchinson Daily Patriot
Atchinson , Kansas June 30 1879
FROM EAST TO WEST
Although Rawlins county has only been settled for a few months with the exception of a few trappers and Texan herders, yet we may see on every side the plowman turning under forever the track of the buffalo.
South of the last two are Sheridan and Thomas counties, equally good, but not so well watered or timbered. As the track of the bison and red man vanish and the buffalo grass turns to golden grain will the iron wheel linger.
A Tribune Emissary Practicing His Art Under Difficulties
His Visit to the Camp of the Hostile Sioux in the Far Northwest.
Impressive Display of Savagery with Which He Was Greeted.
After Many Failures, He Is as Last Tete- Tete with Sitting Bull.
A Flowery and Interesting Talk with That Famous Chief.
He Never Wanted War, but Only Defended Hiss Women and Children.
All He Wants Now is to be Let Alone and Allowed to Hunt.
He Will Never Consent to Go on a Reservation and Become a Farmer.
Similar Views Expressed by Long Dog, White Gut, Bread Trail, and Others.
SITTING-BULL. July 5, 1879
Interviews with him and all his Chiefs.
Special Dispatch to the Tribune
Sitting Bull’s Camp, June 16, via Wood Mountain, June 18,via Popular River, June 24. Via Ft. Buford, July 3. – There is no necessity for an introduction to the man who now forces his way through the vast crowd of warriors, opening their ranks right and left as he approaches. One recognizes him intuitively, for there is something in his aspect that lifts him above Indians who stand even higher in rank, but who bow in deference to the ability of Sitting Bull. There is something remarkable in his face. It is rather broad and fleshy, but the determined line around the mouth destroys the impression of flabbiness. His eyes are wide, and black, and piercing. The upper lids are heavy, and the center corners hang over the eyes as if the brain has escaped into them. His shoulders and chest are broad and strong, and the arms are muscular, and the hands awfully dirty. He is dressed in blue leggins, beaded moccasins, assured made of the same material, figured like the patterns of broche shawls, and his blanket bound lightly around his waist, for the, afternoon is intolerably hot and clear. I found him in the Milk River country, twelve miles above the mouth of Rock Creek, sixty-five miles south of the line, hundred 25 miles east of Fort Assiniboine, and about eighty miles northwest of Wolf Point Agency. This would bring it about sixty miles north of Missouri River. He was in the heart of so much of
THE BUFFALO COUNTRY
as lies north of the Missouri, and hunting with in different sweep. There is a look of suspicion in his eyes, for he knows he is on dangerous soil. After weeks of toil and travel I have found him, sixty-five miles south of the line, near where the Milk River empties into the Missouri, where he is libel to attack any time, and he is naturally suspicious of all white men who enter his camp. He faces me, – is at the head of his army. Behind him, stretching away to the West, is a possession of splendor, for his camp is moving, and for three miles stretches aligned a mile wide and made up of all the paraphernalia that delights the savage.
Some hundreds of ponies, written by the women of the tribe, draw after them travlix or poles on which the Lares and Penates are piled. Around them circle the warriors, guarding the band. Away off on the hill top for ten miles around are the scouts and sentinels watching for a suggestion of a danger which they would immediately telegraph to the camp by signals. There is something more grand in the scene. For a moment it robs a stranger of fear. The picturesque costumes, the gaudily-daubed faces, the fierce eyes of the warriors, the long line of camps, the beaded and decorated Wolf, the splendid display of horsemanship, the clash of arms, the fringed quivers and colored bows, the leather skins, fine, gave blankets, all conspire in forming
THE WILDEST PICTURE
painted on the prairie.
As I entered the confines of the camp, warrior seem to drop from the sky in spring from the ground. In an instant I was surrounded by 1000 Indians, who swept in upon me from every side, and held me firmly a prisoner. As I had been bound hand and foot there was no escape, but then there was no violence. The pressure was uncomfortable, and the steady gaze of the black eyes a little disconcerted me, but that was all. Closer and closer they pressed around me. Beyond them, and about 500 yards off, another circle of horsemen forms suddenly, their face turned towards me, and now the ranks open, and the man whom I have described comes towards me. The crowd fall back a little, and I am left face-to-face with Sitting Bull.
“HOW COLONEL !”
and as he speaks he extends his hand. “Took tan ea can pa, took tan ea wag a, tich are an targua.” (Well, comrade, where are you from! Where are you going; what do you want!)
“From Wood Moutain, and I am going over to the half-breed camp on the Milk River. I am glad I have met you, and if you are in camped here to-morrow as I go back I will stay and talk with you.”
“You can go.”
Down through a long line of war years open for me and out on the prairie again, but still surrounded, in front, on each side, and behind, right parties, eight or ten in each. They are officiating as an escort, and accompany to see that I do not go beyond the half-breed camp, four, as I afterwards learned, I’m suspected of being an American officer, in my supposed mission is to spy on behalf of the troops. For weeks I have traveled the prairies of Montana, hunting for the Sioux, sometimes well fed, and sometimes cold, wet, and hungry. I had worked my way over hundreds of miles, until I had despaired of success, and had returned to Wood Moutain. There I had found that Major Walsh had received pretty definite information of Sitting Bull’s whereabouts, and again had started out, at last to meet with success. I’d roamed the prairie day after day, sometimes in the boiling son and sometimes drenched through by the pouring rain. Sometimes I had fed clue civilly on antelope, and often again had tortured my stomach was strips of jerked buffalo meat. Many days I had carried buffalo chips between my shirt and buzz them that I might keep them dry and have a fire to sleep by during the cold, rainy nights, and it seemed hard to me that after so much privation I should be doomed to disappointment. But now everything is changed. I had
REWILD THE SAVAGE CAMP
of still more savage men, and, though I had not gleaned much reliable intelligence at the first interview, still had hopes of the morrow. Looking back I saw that the camp was moving again, but it could not go far, and there was every prospect that your instructions to interview Sitting Bull would be carried out at last.
The camp of the half-breeds was but a few miles beyond the spot in which Sitting Bull had dismissed me, right on the banks of the Milk River, but twelve miles from Rock Creek. The location had been well chosen. The lodges formed a circle about a half a mile in diameter, filled the interstices between the lodges for the two- wheeled Indian carts, only in use by the half-breeds and the civilized Indians. They made their ring complete and formed a perfect corral for the horses, of which there appeared to be thousand.
A little further on was the camp of the Cree Indians, the Lodge placed without regard to order, and the horses scattered through the bottom. These half-breeds are
A PECULIAR CLANS OF PEOPLE
in appearance they resemble the gypsies. There are complexion is swarthy, hair black and straight, and mode of life nomadic. They spring from the early French settlers and Indian mothers, and have all the craft of the Redskins combined with the mercurial disposition of the French. The characteristics of both nations are manifest in every action. They love horses and drink, and are devoted to their families. The prairie furnishes them with food, and the horses they breed are there current see at the trading post. As hunters they have no equals, and as fighting men they have subdued every Indian tribe on the plains into a whole some respect. They talk every Indian dialect, a French patois, an excellent English. Some of them even read and write, and have a little education: but there lives are cast in tents, and generations of them will pass away before they can be induced to abandon their migratory habits.
Into this camp I was warmly welcomed, for my interpreter had brothers here and there hospitality was genuine. They talked a great deal of about the civilized world, which, with all their traveling, they had never penetrated, and in return for any information they may have secured ———- live in cities told me much about the prairie.
LAMENTING THE SCARCITY OF BUFFALO
and talking ominously of what another year might bring forth. The next day, Monday, the 16th, every arrangement was made to return to the hostile camp, where the interpreter approached me with an ominous count______. I had better not go, he said. Some warriors had come in from the Sioux, and had spoken of me as a spy. Even Sitting Bull had made minute inquiry as to who I was, and refuse to be satisfied with their explanation that I was a friend to Maj. Walsh. The half-breeds were annoyed at the prospect of trouble, and the Cree wanted it understood that they would not be mixed up with me. Little Black Bear Chief of the Crees, had flatly designated me as a spy during the morning, and though the half-breeds had partially pacified him with assurance that I meant no harm, he still went blowing around his insignificant camp and making an ass of himself generally. Then came word from the Sioux that there warriors intended pain the half-breed camp of visit, which did not less than the anxiety of my interpreters. The whole business began to look Smokey, especially when it was notice that a number of Sioux box had crept into the corral, and that the number was constantly increasing. At the suggestion of Maj. Walsh I had accepted the kindly offered services of Mr. Allen, the Indian trader at Wood Mountain, who was well acquainted with the chief of the Sioux tribe, and an excellent guide. When the information came that the whole outfit was coming in, Allen approached me and laid the situation before me. All we could do, be said, was to keep perfectly quiet, and pretend not to notice anything around me. I was
he told me, both by the Indians and half breeds, the former to detect anything out of the way, and the latter to protect themselves if necessary.
Chicago Daily Tribune July 22 1879
Chicago Daily Tribune Aug 6 1879
Message from Sitting Bull
Chicago, Illinois Aug 29 1879
Custer’s Monument to be Unveiled Next Saturday
Correspondence New York World
West Point, Aug 25.
The figure which the sculpture has made is statuesque portrait of the original in his last and fatal fight. It is eight feet in height and dressed in a Colonels uniform. The pedestal is to be of granite and will be nine feet high, which will make the whole structure about eighteen feet from ground to the top of the head. On the four sides of the die of the pedestal are three medallions and a tablet, all of bronze. The front medallion represents General Custer on horseback in the characteristic costume in which he delighted to appear while on a warlike expedition. The other two medallions on the right and left sides give buffalo heads, with Indian weapons and implements.
September 5, 1879
DOMESTICATING THE BUFFALO
……Efforts are being made, along the route of the Kansas Pacific Railroad, to domesticate the bison or buffalo of the great plains. The hide of the animal is said to be superior in value to that of the common domestic cattle for manufacturing purposes, while the meat is as good. The bison has always been crossed with domestic stock, and the new breed is highly spoken of, though we doubt its superiority for dairy purposes. A proposition has been made to the National Government, by the Railway Company, to establish a huge corral or enclosure for the vast herds of buffalo, and feed and domesticate them for common use.
……If this can be successfully done it will add enormously to our stock of available cattle, as wild herds far exceed the domestic cattle of Texas in numbers. Our resources for hides and meet would be increased at once on a prodigious scale, and we should no longer depend upon the cattle of the Buenos Ayres pampas for our hides, we should have such a resource as this to look to. We trust that the efforts will be made under some sure auspicious, whether Congress shall reject the offer or not. Unless something of this kind be done, these vast herds of buffaloes will be wasted away by the Indians and white hunters in pursuit of their hides for robes.
……It should be understood that this is a work of time, labor, care and study to domesticate any wild animal, more especially one like this, accustomed to the most unrestrained freedom, and always traveling plains together in herds. That it can be done we do not doubt – indeed it has been done on a small scale – and if it were achieved it would lay the foundation of a great and permanent trade, both for the railways and the dwellers of the plains. That the, domestic stock can also be improved by crossing with the buffalo has been demonstrated by experience made in Kansas. Thus we shall produce an American stock of cattle differing from any in Europe and perhaps better certainly as good, in supplying food for man.
……If the domestic stock were allowed to run loose on the plains it would soon become as wild as the bison. The domestic cat does, and so does the common goat when set free. Hogs allowed to run loose in the forest to feed on acorns become half wild. It is clear therefore, that the domestic animals were originally as wild as the buffaloes, and have been tamed. So we think the buffalo could be if corral and fed. The success of such an enterprise would at once convert Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming and Colorado into vast cattle-raising regions, and give of prodigious impulse to business, both for the supply of meat-markets of the Union, and for the command of the trade in hides, and in such materials as glue, whips, sandpaper, etc. made from the horns, hoofs, etc.
……If we suffer the herd of buffaloes to pass out of existence without utilizing them in this way a great loss will be inflicted on many industrial interests, and we shall be compelled to seek out other and more costly methods of turning the great plains to some practical account. This is the shortest in easiest one that has yet been offered, and as it requires no large expenditure of money, no labor is planting of trees or building of roads, we think it ought at once to be acted upon, so that the plan could be put into operation with the opening of spring. The markets of the Atlantic States could then be a supplied with buffalo meat even more cheaply than common beef, as we should have the herds sent to market alive to be sold and slaughtered here at our doors. If we lose such an opportunity as this, one that offers so many advantages at so little expense, and that would open the way to a vast and permanent interest on the great plains, we shall deserve to be set down as extremely shortsighted.-Germantown Telegraph.
The Inter Ocean, September 27, 1879
GAME- There was a good demand, and the market ruled firm. Quotable at $4.50 per doz for partridge, and $3.50@4 for prairie chickens: some in poor order for less, Mallard ducks quotable at $2.50, and small at $1, while teal were salable at $firstname.lastname@example.org, Small snipe dull at 25@30c per doz, and jack sellable at $1.00. Live wild pigeons $1.50 per doz. And feathered at 75c. Bears saddles quotable at 12 ½ c per lb. Smoke buffalo hams quotable at 12 ½ c per lb in a small way. Venison saddles sold at 11@12c per lb for choice short cut, and 10c for long cut, when in prime order. Hams, 14@15c per lb. Venison carcasses quotable at 6@7c per lb.
Chicago, Illinois Oct 14 1879
THE HEAD CHIEF OF THE UTES
Denver (Colo.) Tribune
Ouray, the head chief of the Utes at the Uncompahgre, is an Indian of remarkable ability.
He has made two visits to Washington, and, seeing the power an immense number of the whites, has become in every sense of the word a peaceful Indian. He lives in a house, cultivate some sixty acres of ground, has a large flock of sheep, where’s the clothing of a white man, rides around in a covered wagon or carriage, and has largely adopted the habits and customs of civilization. He has learned to sign his name, and was in the habit of sending letters direct to Pres. Grant stating his grievances and what he wanted. His influence has been all powerful on the side of peace, and that there has been no collusion between his people in the whites is entirely due to him. He is not, however, the hereditary head chief, but became so many years ago through his force of character in the favor of the Indian Agent, who acknowledged him as such. Frequent attempts have been made to assassinate him by the Indians themselves, especially those of the hereditary chieftain blood, who are jealous of his power and dissatisfied with his change from the old habits and customs. The whites much dread that at some time or other these attempts may succeed; then there will be trouble; there will be no restraining force, and the bad Indians will get control of the tribe. It will not be their numbers, but the scattered character of the mining population, the numerous mountain hiding places, and the inaccessibility of the country which will make them formidable enemies in the war protracted and expensive.
Many years ago the Sioux captured the son of Ouray while he was on a buffalo hunt on the eastern plains of Colorado. The boy then was 12 years of age and his only child. It has been Ouray’s great grief, and, as he was taken prisoner and is still living, he has made every effort to regain him, but as yet unsuccessfully. The Government ought, as he thinks, to assist him and get the boy back. Ouray last year gave strong proof of his determination to keep his people quiet by the summary punishment of O-se-paw, a Ute medicine chief, who was, if possible, even more restless than Colorow. He was constantly traveling from the White River Agency to the southern Ute country, exciting all the Utes and endeavoring to get them to join him in an attack upon the whites, claiming that they had been defrauded by the Brunot Treaty (agreement), and the whites ought not to be allowed to remain in the San Juan country. Ouray saw that he was getting quite a strong party on his side, so to stop the trouble, after an angry controversy, as he was leaving the Council, in the act of mounting his horse, O-se-paw was shot dead by order of Ouray. (end of article)
Ouray (Arrow) (c. 1833–August 24, 1880; August 20, 1880 according to whites based out of Colorado) was a Native American chief of the Uncompahgre band of the Ute tribe, then located in western Colorado. Because of his leadership ability, Ouray was also acknowledged by the United States government as a chief of the Ute.
In 1880 he left Colorado to travel to Washington, D.C., where he testified before Congress about the Ute uprising of 1879. He tried to secure a treaty for the Uncompahgre Ute, who wanted to stay in Colorado; but, the following year, the United States forced the Uncompahgre and the White River Ute to the west to reservations in present-day Utah. The reason he was called the man of peace was because he made a treaty with the settlers.
The Chicago Daily Tribune, Nov. 28, 1879
A Valley Valuable for Agriculture Purposes
-The Indian Problem
Special Correspondence of The Tribune.
……Miles City, M.T., Nov. 18 -the Yellowstone Valley is more of a terra incognita than almost any other portion of our country. It has been within the past three or four years only that the first steamboat ascended this river. Gen. Reynolds undertook an expedition for that exploration of this region in 1859’-60. His published report was on the whole unfavorable to the country,-the chief objection being, as he conceived, a lack of moisture. He admits finding of fine level valley, but considers it in the main rainless and barren. As he came in sight of the Yellowstone Valley, approaching it from the south, near to where old Fort Sarpy was then standing, he says the plain was literally black with buffalo. A better acquaintance with that country and his surroundings would have enabled him more accurately to appreciate the cause for the lack of verdure of which he complains. The presence of such immense herds was of itself evidence of something to feed upon: and, besides, plainsman say that such herds never lead the vicinity of desirable water till everything in the shape of herbage is extinct.
……But, after all, one is often led to inquire whether the conditions extending over a vast portion of our country are now what they were twenty years ago. There can be little doubt that the rainfall West of the Missouri River has vastly increased in amount within that time, and is now rapidly extending its line to the westward. Whatever may have been the condition of things as to verdure, or the lack of it, when Gen. Reynolds was here twenty years ago, there is certainly no lack of it now. Since Reynolds’ day both Generals Sherman and Sheridan have been here, and given lar juster use of the country. The Valley of the Yellowstone is not wide, probably not more than from three to fifteen miles: but I doubt if any other equal area in the whole country will prove more productive when submitted to proper culture. The first real effort in that direction has been made the present year, and is more than satisfactory. The cases of success are not exceptional, but universal. I have not heard of any crop being a failure.
……Mr. J.C. Guy, one of the Country Commissioners of Custer County, informed me last evening that he made up planting of oats on ninty acres of the spring-breaking, sowing the last about 25th of May. With most in different appliances for threshing, he saved something over 4,000 bushels. And a small attempt at wheat did equally well. Our Illinois farmers would not expect any better yield on sod broken the same spring it was sown: and, what will seem singular, and perhaps incredible to them, these oats are now being sold in this market at four cents per pound, or a $1.28 per bushel. Everything in the line of garden- vegetables has grown two sizes quite out of the question in Iowa or Illinois. Fruit is as yet untried to any extent, but the presence of the wild grape, plum, and cherry would indicate that the tame varieties may be expected to follow.
……But, when the production of the cereals becomes sufficient to answer the demands of local consumption, then this section will become as it ought of be, a stock-growing region: and in that respect where can it be excelled? I doubt if anywhere on this planet. All that has been said of it in that respect is true. This Yellowstone Valley, with the clear-flowing tributaries to its river, will someday, and that not distant, be a paradise for cattle and sheep. But someone says: It’s winter-it’s long, tedious winter! I don’t know how that may be. My tarry here has only been just three weeks to-night. Within that time I have read of snow in Chicago, and much farther south than that. I have read the order for the sleighs to come out in St. Paul. And yet here nearly every day of that three weeks has been as mild as June. I don’t know why it is, and only state the fact just as I find it. And, when the best informed tell me that no material change in this respect need be it expected till about Christmas, I am beginning to take stock in the statement. All agree and persist in saying that stock live well here during the winter, without any food prepared by the hand of man.
……But, whatever this section of our country is, or is capable of becoming, either as a stock or grain production region, the Indian problem confronts you whichever way you turn. Put your finger upon any correct map of Montana, and you will find it dotted all over with Indian reservations,-some large, some small. All the best portions are occupied, or largely so, by reservations; and one cannot help feeling that they are occupied to but very little purpose. In most instances, many hundred acres are allotted to each individual Indian, squaw, and papoose. And yet not one solitary acre of the whole is devoted to cultivation, or any useful purpose. The Crow reservation on the Yellowstone is in point. It is about 200 miles in one direction by 150 in the other. Gen. Miller assures me that a more desirable section of country can scarcely be found anywhere: and still the whole is occupied by less than 2,400 Indians, big and little, and none of it cultivated. And not only do they occupied to no purpose themselves immense tracts of country, but they are a terror to those pursuing the arts of peace upon lands in any proximity to them. That they will, as a rule, exterminate civilized life whenever it can be done without detection no one intelligent upon the subject doubts. The policy of allowing these savages to roam over such vast portions of country, to prey upon human life and peaceful industry, would not be tolerated for a day if it was left to stand upon its naked merits. The best and about the only real good we have ever done the Indians, was when we compelled those in the Indian Territory to localize and do something for themselves. The same policy applied to those north of the Platte River would be followed by the same results. But the appropriations of money made for them are so easily reached and appropriated by others, and the Indian affords such a vast opportunity for sentimentalist to display their goodness, that the subject is one of the most difficult and all our National affairs to handle in a sensible way. Their superior right to the soil is urge to with great persistence. If that argument, and all that pertains to it, is good now, it was just as good the day the first settler set his foot upon the Continent, if it is wrong to make peaceful homes, and farms, and cities on our soil now, it was then.
……The fact is, the Indian has tried to escape the general doom of earning his living by the sweat of his brow, has got beaten at it, and won’t surrender. Work he won’t, and, as a rule, he never will, and he thinks the white man who does is a dog. That we should deal justly with him as with whoever else, nobody doubts. But to let him occupy the land, and make the white man support himself and his Government and the Indian beside, is it fair. If he’s a lost Israelite as many think, he’s badly lost. But, whatever and whoever he may have been in the distant past, nobody who sees him now can doubt that he is a savage, wicked, idoistrous being, with absolutely no traits of characteristics which any sane person could desire to perpetuate in another race J.S.W.