Correspondence of the Gallipolis Journal
CINCINNATTI, June 28th, 1851
1851-1860 EDS. Journal:The smoke of the battle has so far cleared off the great field, that we can see about what the issue has been in the Constitution canvas. The new instrument is elected by a large majority, although the vote is not a full one, but sufficiently as to indicate pretty clearly how the popular pulse feels in regard to the principles it embodies.
Had there been an organized and active opposition to it, if they would have been sealed, but there was no such opposition, and only the reflecting, reading and thinking portion of our people voted, so that the majority for it may be taken as evidence that the old Constitution was not what exactly suited the present and prospective welfare of this noble old State. The Whigs can go to work now and do their duty like men, and the State will be safe for all time to come, but if we now allow the Locos to win the day and gives such tone and features to the policy of the new fundamental law as they see fit, or the doom of the suicide will be ours. From now out to the vote for the several offices of the State Government, the Whigs should take hold and work together like men determined to save themselves from ruin. There is a policy in war which sometimes wins the victory by peace and quiet, and a “masterly inactivity” is often best in contest where great principles are at stake; but we do not happily occupy such a position now, and we must rouse up to a great contest and work with an energy that resolves itself into victory.
Since writing you last, the “Spirit Rappers” have left us, and the great attraction has been a buffalo hunt by the tribe of Ottoe Indians on the Queen city race course. It came off on Monday last, and if anyone is now asked if he saw the “Buffalo hunt”the emphatic reply is “No sir-e-e-e.” Flaming handbills had been posted throughout the city and country for a week previous, announcing “a great attraction, “ “tremendous excitement, “ “terrific fight between the Ottoe Indians and the ferocious buffalo, “ together with a series of Indian sports, such as riding their own wild horses, mimic battles, running, wrestling, target shooting with bow and arrow, etc., etc., with other attractions too numerous to be mentioned. At the appointed time, Monday P.M., there had assembled in and around the race ground at least twelve thousand people, all eager and inpatient to see the “wild sports of the West” as promised “in the bills.” Three o’clock came, and the excited crowd called for the beginning of the sports. At length, the Indians came down from the stand, armed with bows and arrows, spears and tommahawks for the fight. An old bull buffalo, that got to will to follow a menagerie that was here a few weeks since, had been “towed” behind a dray into the centre of the lot, and waiting to be cut loose. The Indians, five of them, mounted on some old dray horses, rode around the ‘huge animal” several times, when the word was given to “cut him loose,” and the fund commenced. The “terrified monster,” feeling the rope withdrawn from his head, seemed suddenly relieved of the burthen and, instead of pitching into the half scared Indians, as was expected he would, he very leisurely “laid him down” to
“chaw his cud.” The multitude cheered, the Indians whooped after their savagest style, the little boys chucked rocks at the “monster,” but he would stir a peg. By this time the flimsy veil of the hunting was seen through, and a general scattering was observed among some who now say they “warn’t thar.” Nothing daunted, however, the Ingines at last plucked up courage to ride up close to the recumbent beast and shoot a few arrows into his back and sides, these pricked him up a little bit and he lazily got up, walked about five rods into a little frog whole of water and lay down again. The Indians be it said to their honor, were by this time disgusted at the silly turn of the affair, and rode off the field, leaving their pale faced brethren to pound and mall away at the deceased carcass of the “gigantic buffalo.” The crowd were well convinced now that a gigantic humbug had been practice upon them, for the band had stopped playing and vamoosed, the “officers of ceremonies” were nowhere to be “diskivered, “ and taking their cue from the general expression of those who remained to see the animal pounded to death, it was resolved to get up an “afterpiece” to the performance.
Accordingly the carcass was loaded on a dray and attended by about five hundred boys, loafers and **blacks**, it was hauled through the principal streets of the city, the mob seeing and shouting as they went like so many demons. After perambulating the city in this manner, gathering up all the rowdies and loafers they could, the procession halted in front of Wood’s Museum, for the purpose, as they said, of depositing the remains of the buffalo “among his 600,000 wonderful curiosities. Here was a dilemma for their getters up of this stupendous fraud and humbug, that promised some real fun and no mistake, for objecting decidedly to move of the mob, a shower of stones, clubs, missiles, etc., was hurled at the door and windows of the Museum, accompanied with hisses and groans.
There could be no mistaking the spirit that dictated this kind of fun, and Messrs, Wood, Crisp & Co. began to see the elephant themselves. Mr. Wood try to speak in his own defense, but the mob would hear him, as they had seen crisp, Rice and others, be ongoing to the establishment, taking the direction of the sports in the field, and it was useless for Wood to talk unless he would pay back the fifty cents apiece to all who were out to the “buffalo hunt.”
Matters became serious, for clubs were flourished, knives were drawn and a general assault upon the Museum was apprehended, when, happily for “the buffalo hunters,” (Wood, Crisp & Co.) the Mayor, at the head of a body of the police, came up to the rescue.
The carcass of the Bison was taken in hand and, when some of the rowdies showed fight, several of them also, the mob began to fall off, and by ten o’clock all was quiet. The prompt and timely interference of the Mayor and police, doubtless prevented much destruction of property if not bloodshed, and the universal excitement among all classes during the afternoon and evening may serve as a warning in the future not to tamper too far with people’s gullibility.
Had that mob once got into the Museum it would have been destroyed as sure as fate, Norwood the lives of Wood, Crisp or Rice been very safe had they come within the reach of the furious rioters. Thus ended the ‘Wild sports of the West, “ and it is certainly to be hoped that when it’s like is again seen in this region, there will be ten thousand less fools then there were on this occasion; for we haven’t got a Barnum here in the West, and it’s no use trying to imitate him.
The Atlantic and Pacific Railway
From the London Daily News
Aug 12th 1853
……Our active American relatives are in a state of great eagerness about a new enterprise, in the execution of which all the civilized world will wished them well. They are now sounding the trumpet and marshaling their forces for war against dwellers on their own Continent, but promising the shriek of this steam whistle, and proposing to open a highway of peace, in the form of a railroad which shall unite the commerce of the Eastern and Western worlds;-which shall run from the Atlantic to the Pacific. It was remarked, with some curiosity, that while the convention held at Memphis, a few weeks since, could agree on none of the immediate objects of their conference, they came to a decision on one point, before supposed collateral, to support, with the whole strength of the South, the project of a railway to the Pacific. And the North and the West show themselves now no less ready and eager. With the unusual rapidity of their national purpose, they are bending their wells to people the deserts where the buffalo are browsing in innocent security, and to bridge the rivers which have hardly yet heard the mingling of human voices with their own roar. Land surveying, with its seven-league boots, is bestriding the prairies, and making no more of the passage of the Rocky Mountains than if there precipices were of flight of garden-steps, leading “to fresh fields and pastures new.” The foot-prints of the geometrical giant mark the spots where stations are presently to arise, and signal-post to left their warning fingers; and platforms to be laid down, whence the doctrine and exhortation will day and night be practically given forth – to “go a-head.” The Indian and the Buffalo will hide themselves afar off, and be equally at a loss to know what it all means. The prairie-dog will burrow deeper; and the herds of wild horses will scamper more wildly with the wind, when this steam-horse snorts and pants, and shrieks after them from behind. The Mormons will appoint a day of fast and humiliation, because they are not permitted to find the ends of the earth, anymore than the Jews the and of their wandering. The whales will slink away from the Pacific shore, and on the opposite coast the Asiatic will come down to gaze and hearken, from the Russian in his furs to the Malay in his cotton scarf.
……Will it be done? Can it be done? Why not? asked the Americans. The only wander to them is that it was not done long ago. The Englishman who once saw Pitt and Fox and on the first number of the Edinburg Review, says that he remembers the discovery of that American interior and the noise that was made by the travels of Lewis and Clarke, who describes such a region of wilderness as it is preposterous to suppose can begin to support habitation and traffic for a century to come. The American is saying, meantime, that his nation is growing as lazy as any of the Old World peoples, that Lewis and Clark had told us all about the interior of the continent so long ago as before his grandfather died. The whole thing should have been at work before this time, and he cannot imagine what the world is waiting for. The work will, no doubt, be begun. When and how it will be finished is a matter of more doubt; though it is probably only a question of time. The last Congress, made an appropriation for that purpose of a triple survey of a western route; and now every Congress, great and small, from the halls of the Legislature to the village tea-table, is voicerously discussing the project. That the thing is to beat done is quite settled, and everybody insists that the success is no less decided. The mere settlement of the country along the route will pay for the road and “plant;“ and the goods and passenger traffic will be all profit. All that is disposed of, wish all the antecedents and consequences of increased production in the Southern States, increase manufacturers in the North; more hogs killed, by millions, in Ohio; more grain growers in the West then Tamboff could ever boast; visitors from Kamtschatka, and Shanghai, and Batavia, to the Virginian Springs; the transit of the Aragos and the Herschells, and Faradays through the States, to the scientific meetings which will be held at Peking when the Chinese get their own again: toll taken from the world is passing this new bridge over the gulf of barbarism; these res___ts are all clear and certain. It is quite another matter that engrosses all the serious argument of the case. In all soberness, it is a serious question – more serious one thing is often offered to man’s free choice. When the state what the question is, namely, which of the three proposed routes shall be preferred, the down is not about the difficulty of hill and dale, rot and swamp, nor even about the depth of the Rose and the intensity of the heats. Serious as such matters are to the engineer, the merchant, and the emigrant, there are greater considerations for the statesman to weigh. In a word, there is a deep and spreading feeling among the Americans that the completion of their Pacific Railway will bring to the test the stability of their Union; and the apprehension is seen by those who best know their country and their politics not to be unreasonable. If the northernmost route is chosen it will be sustained by the whole force of European immigration, which certainly would not be the case with the Southern route, which would not suit either the physical or the moral constitution of the Germans, Dutch, Swedes, and British, who are continually passing to the west of the States. The delegates who met at Memphis were charged with the advocacy of the Southern route, which should intersect with Texas and Mexico, and comes out on the Gulf of California. The most prominent hope from the latter scheme is that the South will at last flourish like the North, and have what the planters call “fair play” for their “peculiar institution.” The preponderance of the South in Congress has availed to give her prosperity; and she now know hands another chance in the first possession of her grandest railway in the world. It is interesting for all the world to know how far she is right. ____ world’s opinion is in general, we believe, that ____. The railroads and their activity, and slavery with its ____nalies, cannot coexist.
That is our opinion. ____should apprehend that there might be some extension southwestward of the institution of Slavery in the American form, from the activity which would be created along the line and at the end of it but we have little doubt that slavery would cease in the existing American States which are seeing on this new method of making it answer and it’s introduction further down the line would hardly, perhaps, be an aggravation of the ____ condition of those who would then be ______ and to which there would be a certainty of speedy emancipation from the same causes which would have wrought in higher up. We should heartily wish success to the south and her struggle of the road, if we did not believe the same re____ to her would follow in the case of the road be-
______ anywhere, while the danger of the extension of _____ area of Slavery is less in the case of the Northern route. Either way – any way in which a railroad is concerned, with all its influx of intelligence and sympathies – the transmutation of Slavery into a higher order of productive services is secure, as the South will find in her own case; will find, we trust, with the satisfaction she little anticipates. Meantime, the contest about the route is likely to be a serious one; and, when that is settled, the working of the project will be attended with extreme anxiety, till it is seen whether the interest and the views, and the temper of the North and South can be as reconciled in that time and ___ shall consolidate and not explode the Union, which can hardly be more dear to American citizens than it is interesting to all true citizens of the great empire of civilization.
NEW YORK DAILY TRIBUNE
August 4, 1856
THE BUFFALO, OR NORTH AMERICAN BISON
……Very few persons who enjoy the comforts of a buffalo robe in the coldest Winter day, or hottest Summer night- for no bed or comfortable than a robe spread upon the floor or ground, in hot weather- ever take a thought that the animal that produced this luxury, like the beaver, otter, and deer, of our day, or like the mastodon of an ancient day, is rapidly disappearing from the face of the earth. Time was, and not very distant either, when buffaloes where as plenty in Kentucky as they now are upon the prairies of Northern Nebraska; and the time is so short since herds the buffaloes surrounded the head of Lake Michigan, that their bones are still bleaching upon the surface, or have just been turned under by the pioneers plowshare. Some persons suppose those animals are driven back by the advance of civilization. So they are; but it is back like that aboriginal human race of America – back to the “spirit land,” from whence no traveler ever returned. If they are driven back, they are now driven into a cul-de-sac, out of which there is no escape, and in which there is no continued existence for the hunted beast. That the wild Buffalo must perish, and be swept away from the face of the earth, is as inevitable as it is that the mastodon has already gone, or that the Indian is going.
……It is as inevitable that we shall all lose the comfort, luxury and convenience of the skins of the buffaloes, as it is that they are passing away, unless something is soon done to invert the loss. What that something is, is the question now to be considered. The animals cannot exist in the wild state, hemmed in by savage white men and mixed up with red savages, both intent upon obeying one single text Scripture, “Slay and eat.” The savage slays to eat; the white Savage eats and slays, and slays again, for the “sport” of being a destroyer.
The only source of life, the soul dependence for subsistence of many thousands of Indians, are the herds of buffaloes, narrowed into a compass, growing smaller and almost geometrical proportion every year; and it is beyond human belief to suppose that men thus situated will spare the seed, though they perished for the lack of the harvest.
……For the protection of deer and other wild game and all the older States all statute laws have proved ineffectual. Such laws would prove still more ineffectual to protect the buffalo against such “‘border ruffians”and in fast the one between Savage and civilized life. Laws do not suffice to protect human life, not only and civilized communities, but among those who claim to be the very pink of chivalry of civilization.
……What can be done to reserve the future generations the luxurious comfort of the skins and buffaloes. The wild animals cannot continue to exist – they cannot be domesticated and prosper. They may be penned – they may breed in captivity – but they are still wild animals. They have never been tamed so as to prove advantageous to the farmer. Still, we believe they can be bred as to be so. Readers have succeeded by what they term crossing, and producing bullocks more like the original than the buffalo is unlike the domesticated bovine race. In short, a breeder sets out to obtain any desired point, and obtains it. The finest Saxony fleece has been obtained by breeding for fine wool. The long, fine staple procured by Bakewell, by systematic course of breeding the common sheep of England, has been improved upon by others, till the value not only of the fleece, but also of the carcass has been increased many fold, and brought to almost perfection at the will of those who guided the operation.
……What has been done, can be done again. The North American bison, or buffalo, as commonly called, can be crossed upon the bovine race of England and America, with the sole view to breed for the fleece, until a domestic race is obtained that will give them those who live after the last wild buffalo has been slain better roads than those now in use, while the flesh of the animal, like that of the fine wooled sheep, will still be good food; or, as beast of labor, a race may be obtained more hardy than the one that we now depend upon for the vast amount of work done by the patient ox.
How much better worthy other premium of $50,000 with such an improvement be, then that some frittered away and prices for the largest parsnips, or biggest cabbage heads, or most obese specimens of the genus sus?
……Will the State Agricultural Society of the State of New York take this subject into consideration, and offers such a liberal premium, payable at the end of ten years, and will induce some of the spirited cattle breeders, not only of this State but all the states including the Free State that is to be near the buffalo region, to take the matter in hand and produce a breed of cattle that will furnish future generations with “improved” buffalo robes?
Bellevue Gazette, Bellevue Nebraska, May 21 1857
Reedsburg Herald, Wisconsin Nov 14 1857
Pittsburgh Daily Post , Feb 15 1858
The Abbeville Banner
April 1 1858
Life on the Plains – Herds of Buffalo
……A member of Company C, 1st Cavalry, U.S. Army, recently arrived at Fort Leavenworth from an expedition on Western plains, write as follows to his father in Springfield, Illinois: “We had an interesting expedition, but I have had no time to particularize any of the many interesting scenes and incidents. Suffice for the present to say, that we traveled over two thousand miles, and saw some of the most splendid picturesque and beautiful country to be found anywhere, and some of the wildest and most desolate country outside the great desert. We saw, chased, killed cooked and ate, buffalo, elk, antelope, deer, hares, rabbits, turkeys, etc. Of buffalo we saw millions, and very near the same number of antelope. For nine days of out travel we passed through one continuous herd of buffalo: The whole country was literally blackened with them as far as the eye could reach daily. We had to surround our camp with fires at night, to keep from being over run by mighty herds of this wonderful animal.”
NATIONAL INTELLIGENCER, Washington, D.C., Aug. 12, 1858
A Skirmish with the Buffaloes
An officer of the Army, writing from the camp on the Platte, says: “ On the forth day of July we first struck the buffalo. The excitement was intense. The recruits, in their enthusiasm, broke through discipline, and blazed away at a small herd crossing the road in front of them. Some three or four bulls ran parallel to a light battery, when the artillerist commenced peppering them with Colt’s revolvers. Stung by these leaden pellets, the animals wheeled in line and charged the battery with the most warlike intentions. Down they came with glancing eyes, and away went the horses and pieces in the most inglorious manner. One piece ran to the rear, and another struck off a quarter of a mile into the prairie before the affrighted horses became manageable. The dragoons and infantry of course had a hearty laugh as the vanquished artillery: but had they been charged, one-half of the former would probably have found a seat somewhere else, and the latter scattered rapidly , without standing at all on the order of their going. Indeed, if there is any military combination, composed of flesh and blood, capable of solidly withstanding the charge of an infuriated herd of buffalo, I have yet to find it out.”
Richmond Dispatch, Virginia Sep 16 1858
The Belvidere Standard
Belvidere, Illinois Nov. 15, 1859
A fight between a buffalo and a grizzly bear recently came off at Washington, Yolo county, Cal. The performance took place within an enclosed circle. A stout steak was driven in the centre of the enclosure, to which the grizzly was attached on one side by a heavy chain, and the buffalo on the other in like manner. Previous to the contest the animals were confined in cages, from which they were dragged with lassos. The grizzly appeared frightened at first sight of the bison, and turning tail, crept under his cage. The buffalo, however, seem that goaded to a strange, wild fury, pursued his retreating antagonist with such a bellowing that the bear was fain to show fight, and sees in his enemy by the hind foot, bringing the first blood. The second and resulting in a draw battle, neither animal being hurt. At the third lunge, the buffalo drove his horns into the belly of the poor bruin, disemboweling hand and causing the death of the beast in a few minutes. The spectacle, says the Sacramento Standard, was a brutal and degrading one. About a hundred and fifty people witnessed it.
Cincinnati Daily Express Jan 27 1860-Buffalo Robes
Dawson Weekly Times
Ft. Wayne, Indiana Jan. 28 1860
OUR HUNTING GROUNDS
The New York correspondent to the Philadelphia Press gives his last letter the following gossip:
The rapidly increasing number of noblemen and gentlemen were visiting the prairies in wilds of the West for sporting purposes, has stimulated the curiosity and enthusiasm of their brother Nimrods across the channel. Henceforth the Briton is not to be the exclusive “red slayer” from foreign parts, of the deer and the doe, the buck and bison, and the “varmints” of the catamount species generally, that roam over the vast illimitable space out West. His enterprises and marksmanship are to be contested by the gentleman of France one of whom, in the spirit of true adventure, is already here, and proposes soon to set the rudder of his countenance towards the place where the sun sets.
The gentleman to whom I allude is Mr. Charles Heidsick, whose name on cartridges of a liquid character is familiar to the generous and thirsty souls of this land. He brings with him several specimens of beautiful and improved arms, and, as soon as the proper season beckons him on, will depart on his sanguinary raid against the beast of the field and the fowls of the air that hold habitation amid the rocky fastnesses and great prairies of the West. The history of the hunters; yet been written, will form of volume alike spiced with adventure, instruction and amusement. Our readers may perhaps remember Lord Gore, who remained nearly three years on the plains, and upon the plateau of the table lands between the Sierra Madre and Sierra Nevada. From the character of the retinue thirty men, sixty horses, large baggage and provisions trains, tons of ammunition, and $10,000 worth of improved firearms – he was the most formidable enemy of game-dom ever in those parts. Numerous other English nobleman, and officers, and private gentleman have been over the same ground, proving that England up to this time, has furnished more appreciative sportsmen than any foreign country. From the continent there came, some five years since, the Prince of Nassau, who, a prince in character as well as in name on his travels amongst us in complete until he roamed to the land of the buffalo, and brought down his “bull and cow.” I need not to allude to Mr. Grantley Berkeley, whose exploits have latterly found their way to the public through the press. We now have the first envoy from the sporting gentlemen of France.
Pittston Gazette-Pittston, Pa.-April 26 1860
How Animals Cool Off
(This article was printed years earlier and later)
The Plymouth Weekly Democrat- Feb 9 1860
The New York Times April 14 1860
List of Circus Animals