Bison Milk and the Orphan Buffalo Calf

Follow Wesleys’ progress on his YouTube channel.  

Care for a Bison / Buffalo calf.

I feel so lucky to be able to publish all this information for our bison/buffalo calves. Look at all the people that contributed! This would not have been possible without them. (further down the page is the most recent articles)  Raising Bison Calves

 

Orphaned bull calf adopted by another mother, along with her own calf.

These are a few of the first calf buffalo heifers penned together while calving. One heifer had a freak accident in the night and had to be put out of her misery. She had a new buffalo calf about a week old now orphaned. The heifer on the right adopted that buffalo calf and has been taking care of it since, along with her own calf. A few days ago the calf had gotten out and was lost as to how to get back to the herd. He was guided back and quickly joined back up, except now the adoptive mother wanted nothing to do with him. Keeping a close eye on him and waiting to see if she would take him back, another first-calf heifer with her own calf, took him in. The next day the crew noticed the orphan bison calf was back with his first adoptive mother.  At one point during all this, the first adoptive mother was seen nursing three  calves at once, but that was short-lived.

 

Milking Bison – Can you milk a Bison? No, we do not milk American Bison/Buffalo. (generally)

Yes, we have milked a bison cow in recent years, ONLY to study the milk. Their bag is extremely small compared to other Bovidae or Bovine. Bison are a wild animal and it’s best not to put your hands on them any more than absolutely necessary. (very stressful) Bison Welfare


Buffalo milk is what you are thinking of. While researching ‘bison milk’ I found several countries that use their buffalo for milking. Italy, Germany..etc. … some countries call their buffalo bison as we do, but there are only two types of bison. American bison (bison bison) and European or Wisent (Bison bonasus) . Neither are milked. Water Buffalo

1840’s Robert Wickliffe, of Lexington, Kentucky, dated November 6, 1843 (his experiments started in 1813)
As the milk of the buffalo cow, while small in quantity, is extremely rich, it is evident that a strain of buffalo blood in the domestic stock would greatly improve the quality of the milk over that of the common cow.

1860’s Mr. James P. Swain of Bronxville, New York, who in 1868 made a number of experiments in crossing the buffalo with Jersey cattle, records some interesting observations in regard to the milk of his cross-breeds. These animals were much larger than the Jersey, almost black in color, with a somewhat woolly coat. They were quite tame and exceedingly domestic, allowing a boy to handle them, and stood to be milked as well as any cow in the herd of Jerseys.

Mr. Swain made some careful tests of the milk, in comparison with that of his choicest Jerseys, and found that though the quantity was small—being about ten quarts a day when fresh—it was however astonishingly rich, yielding fully twenty-seven percent of cream, while the best of the Jerseys only marked twenty-five percent. One of the striking peculiarities that he noticed in the cream was, though perfectly distinct, it was almost colorless, that is, white like the milk. The milk was much sweeter than that of the common cows and contained but little water, and when curdled made a remarkably tenacious curd, having not more than half the usual amount of whey.

1874 Around this time, William and Charles Alloway of Manitoba, Canada, with the aid of a milk cow, captured three bison calves to start their own herd.

1877 (View page)
The calves were weaned, and the mothers, although showing some of the buffalo characteristics, proved to be very good milkers, quite gentle, giving an average of 14 quarts of milk per day for at least five months, and such rich milk I never saw. Cattalo Cows 50/50

Catalo/Beefalo (View page)
But, in the 1880s, 100 years later, a Nebraska and claimed 14 quarts a day from one cow that “almost all the cheese is made of buffalo (bison crosses)  milk” in this area. Also, James P Swain of Bronxville, New York, found that his catalo, a cross with Jerseys, gave milk with twenty-seven percent, almost-colorless cream. His…They were no favorites as they yielded less milk.”

1888 (View page)
I think if we could have had cows to suckle the youngsters at once more would have been saved, not on account of the milk, as ninety-nine out of 100 would suppose, but on account of their being the nearest substitutes to their mothers in the way of company, etc. All of our calves not actually dying of fright on the field reached all the milk they could use before they could have been very hungry after such a fright and chase as was needed in order to capture them, while a calf that had had its mother killed by some soldiers on another trip and that was allowed to run among the horses and followed them got nothing to eat for three days until it reached a post, and yet lived.  Kansas 1888

C.J. Jones -“Buffalo Jones” (View page)
 The pure-blood buffalo cow gives the richest milk in the world.  J Jones 1893

Cree(View page)
The choice parts of a buffalo were the tongue, shoulder, fat from the teats, and heart. The liver was often eaten raw. Sometimes a part of the muzzle and the kidneys were also eaten raw. Men drank warm blood so that they might not be perturbed at the sight of blood in battle. Old people sometimes cut out the teats of milking buffalo cows and drank the milk.

 

Golden Gate Park 1922-TripletsGolden Gate Park Buffalo Calf -Triplets

 

Louisa of Woods’ Crossing: A Story of the Texas Frontier

By James Kaye  (Special thanks to his publisher and James Kaye)

[“Anything sweet-tasting was enjoyed by the Comanches” (Carlson and Jones). Newcomb wrote that lactating animals taken in the chase such as deer and bison were “drained” of their milk from slashes to the udders that mixed milk with blood.” Such milk was considered a delicacy Slashing of udders made milk bloody but how drained” exactly is left unsaid). Fehrenbach wrote similarly that Comanches “loved the taste of blood and of curdled milk in the bellies of suckling calves or fawns.” Herman Lehmann, a “White Comanche,” told of “cutting calves open. Eating their livers, and drinking the milk from their stomachs.”

It can be surmised that milk was a delicacy from any source in the chase and, one might assume, in any manner of the taking. (It is doubtful however that milk from a breast, even one severed, would flow like water from a canteen and Indians didn’t drink from cups.) Joutel wrote of Caddoes drinking human blood though it was left unsaid if mixed with milk or how drunk, but based on a historic massacre Hurons “knelt to the earth and drank freely the blood of their victims as if it flowed out onto the ground” (Cooper). (It is logical to assume that American Indians drank human blood, and milk, in any manner when available.)]

For T.A. “Dot” Babb, who was abducted by Comanches at age thirteen along with his nine-year-old sister, the taste of a dead bison calf’s freshly ingested milk was so intense he could recall it fifty years later.  A women split open the calf, scooped the milk from its stomach, and distributed it among her children. “It was the sweetest stuff I ever tasted, and was thick like our gelatin,” he said.

Frontier Times Magazine

Buffalo calf on milk cow
Antelope Island 1905-1907

 

The Tennessean
Nashville, Tennessee Aug 25 1929

Warden Milks Buffalo Cow
She Balk at First But Perseverance Wins.

Bison Reserve Warden Milks Buffalo Cow But Has Trouble

Great Falls, Mont (UP) Few men have milked a buffalo cow and lived to tell of their experiences. Frank Rose, warden on the bison reserve In Lake county, is one of the few, and he’s probably the only man in the Northwest who ever tried to’ say “so-o-o bossy” to buffalo.

Rose received a request from Salt Lake City for some bison milk for laboratory purposes. He obtained the milk but declared that the operation – would have to be performed by somebody else hereafter.

So far as he could determine, nobody had ever written a book of instructions telling the novice how to go about coaxing a lady buffalo in being milked. He found that milking; buffalo cow was somewhat different from milking the average dairy animal.

First herding the reluctant and rebellious, cow into a crate. Rose made an attempt to obtain the milk. One side of the crate was smashed away, and the milk pall was kicked across the lot. Rose then tied a leg of the cow on each side of the crate. No better results. All four legs were tied but the buffalo continued to object. – Then a maze of ropes were passed around the cow’s body and she was trussed so completely that she could neither kick, bite, butt, rear nor- cast about in any direction. Rose obtained a pint of milk from the indignant animal. The milk tested 7.9 percent butter-fat and had only half the sugar content of ordinary cow’s milk. Rose was glad to find that out anyway.

 

Bison Producers of Alberta  (bisoncentre.com)

It is normal for them to overeat if you give them as much as they want. This often leads to digestive upsets and diarrhea. It is best to keep them a little bit hungry at the end of each feeding. How much milk to give at each feeding depends on a few things but I usually recommend about 500-800 mL (2-3 cups) of milk replacer 4 times a day for the first few weeks. As the calf gets older the frequency decreases and the volume increases. By the time it is 6-8 weeks old twice a day feedings of a 1 1/2 -2 litres would be OK. You may have to adjust these numbers a bit for your own calf once you get to know how much it takes to almost fill him up.

The dirt licking is normal for young calves. It serves 2 purposes. One is that is one of the ways that they explore their environment. They taste it. The other is that need are colonizing their rumen (first stomach) with bacteria and other micro-organisms that are important for the digestion of feed once they start eating. It important that calves have access to a pen with dirt and grass for the normal development of their stomachs. Calves will nibble at grass, hay, or grain when they are a few weeks old but don’t really consume very much until they are a little older. When the calf is a couple of weeks old have some grain or hay available to help supplement his diet. He will eat when he is ready. The sooner you can get him eating solid feed the less milk replacer you will need to buy.

The dirt licking does not indicate a mineral deficiency but it would be wise to have a free choice mineral for him to lick if he wanted. Don’t expect him to each very much because he probably won’t at first.

Using a surrogate mother is another option for feeding your orphan. I know of 2 bison calves being raised by beef heifers this summer and I know of people that have used goats in the past. It certainly cuts down on the work.  (If you are considering using goats to raise your calves I would recommend having them tested for malignant catarrhal fever and Johne’s disease.)

Once the calves are few weeks old it is a good idea to introduce them to some grain and hay or grass so that they can nibble on some solid feed. By the time they are a few months old they should be eating a significant amount of feed. Calves can be weaned from milk at 3-4 months of age and put onto a good quality diet.

Some other tips to help keep your calves healthy are as follows:

  1. Wash the bottles and nipples after each feeding to decrease the bacterial buildup. Good hygiene can prevent problems associated with the contamination of your equipment.
  2. Allow access to the soil so calves can lick it as this may provide some nutrients.
  3. Salt and minerals should also be available.
  4. Build a pen that allows lots of room for exercise.
  5. Try not to keep one calf by itself. Provide another calf to keep it company.

Raising an orphan calf (bison or elk) is a lot of work. Before undertaking the job you should become familiar with the husbandry that is required.

There is some information on our website about feeding orphans. It can be found in the Resource Library under Production Information for Established Producers in the Nutrition section.

Gerald Hauer, Bison Specialist  Download full pdf from 2000
Bison Centre of Excellence

 

This research was done in 95′, I have found compositions for 1929, 1964, 1974 The one in 74′ was lower results than the others, less protein and fat and higher lactose. The result from 64′ matches the one below almost perfectly.

*Bison milk is closest related to mare’s milk.

SPECIESFAT %PROTEIN %LACTOSE %ASH %TOTAL SOLIDS %
Bison1.74.85.70.9613.2
Horse1.62.76.10.5111
Cow avg. (Ayrshire, Brown  Swiss, Guernsey, Holstein, Jersey, Zebu)4.53.054.910.713.78

Table is adapted from course notes by Robert D. Bremel, U. of Wisconsin and from Handbook of Milk Composition,by R. G. Jensen, Academic Press, 1995.

I was curious about how much milk a bison cow holds, so often times when I get calls about a bison calf its because it is being over fed. Yes they always want more, unless you over feed them. In history I only found one account and it was not very clear as to the amount. It was a half canteen. I assume it was a quart size canteen, but it never said. I was going to cut open a cow I lost to see for myself, but I had a lot on my plate and just couldn’t bring myself to do it. I now regret that.  Telling a friend this, they said they did do it on a cow they lost and they collected about 8 ounces. This is good information to have when bottle feeding a calf. Personally I feed 8oz at a time several times a day. Bison calves nurse often and not for very long compared to beef calves. When you see them butting their moms bag for more milk…..they want more or better flow of whats there. Robert Wickliffe in the 1840’s  “while small in quantity”, speaking of milk milk production.
I watch their stools and body condition to guide me on how much, I often get asked: how much? Its hard for me to recommend to anyone, I can only say what I do and have success with. Above is an article published by Bison Producers of Alberta, Gerald Hauer, Bison Specialist. Has a general description of what is safe.

 

DEALING WITH ORPHAN BUFFALO CALVES AND ABANDONED CALVES

By Peter Haase, Buffalo Horn Ranch
April 2000

This spring we were triply blessed with a set of triplet bison calves. Actually, it was

Buffalo Horn Ranch Buffalo Calf- Triplets
Copyright-Buffalo Horn Ranch, Alberta Canada

something of a mixed blessing getting three heifer calves and then being confined to the ranch with the numerous feedings. We have some experience working with abandoned calves over the past three years with mixed results and one of our foundation cows is bottle raised.

 

The birth of the first recorded bison triplets has given us a great deal of publicity in numerous newspapers, magazines and on two national television networks. Perhaps someday they will even be in the Guinness Book of World records. With the publicity, our babies have also become the poster girls for “Brown’s Bison Milk Replacer” a new product that is now becoming commercially available. We were fortunate in that many experienced bison producers were able to give us advice on how to raise these girls properly.

A bison cow normally only has enough milk for one calf, so both are compromised when it comes to competing for the limited milk that mom is able to offer. Often one buffalo calf won’t get quite enough and will begin to fall behind, while its sibling grows stronger. It may take only a few hours or it might take a few weeks, but the usual scenario is that one calf is left behind as a meal for the predictors. In the confined pastures of a ranch, the likely hood of a cow raising twins is perhaps somewhat higher than in the wild. From our research, we have found that most abandoned buffalo calves are twins. Are twins more common today? I don’t know, I suspect that we are discovering more twins for a couple of reasons aside from there being more bison. Firstly, we producers are checking our herds more closely than before, so perhaps we discover the twins before the coyotes do. Secondly, we are more careful with the bison’s nutrition and health care and this too might contribute to more twins.

We had a situation with our second calf ever being born. This calf was born at night and in the confusion of 60 heifers, all but one without a calf, the heifer calf bonded with the one young cow who already had a two-week-old bison calf. The new mother was frantic looking for her calf and the other cow was running around with two calves. After about 30 hours she didn’t want anything to do with this calf and abandoned it. We grabbed her at that point, gave it colostrum and bottle raised it for three weeks before she died of Navel Ill. The colostrum we gave her was too late and did nothing for her immune system. The mother of this abandoned calf found another heifer calving about the time that we grabbed her bison calf. She bonded with the new calf and this calf sucked on his ‘twin’ mothers all summer. The lesson here is that the calf must have colostrum in the first 6 to 12 hours or its chances of survival are slim. Another note here, we have a five-year-old bottle-raised cow that we purchased as a calf. One thing that she really lacks is mothering ability. She never licks off her calf, nor does she look out for it very well. Fortunately, she has had two very persistent calves who have done very well despite the shortcomings of their mother. There is more to being a mother bison than instinct, there must be something learned as well.

There is much more to this paper written by By Peter Haase, Buffalo Horn Ranch, for the full content, please visit Bison Centre

 

Bison Milk and the Orphan Buffalo Calf
Two orphan calves from two different ranches will keep each other company growing up. April 2018

 

Vern Anderson, Dale Burr, Tim Schroeder, Chris Kubal, and Eric Bock
Carrington Research Extension Center
North Dakota State University
Managing Very Young Bison Calves (2001) (download pdf)

It appears the success rate is very low when caring for orphan bison calves under the age of 4 weeks unless significant individual attention can be given to each calf.  These animals are simply too dependent on mother’s milk and cannot be acclimated to milk replacer and starter feeds as a group.  However, weaned bison calves older than approximately 6 weeks attained a 60 percent survival rate with nutrient dense, palatable feeds.  Calves this old probably start ruminating and have the ability to survive on more traditional feeds.

 

My talk with Bitterroot Bison – March 2019

In June of 2010, it was published that Troy Westre and Chriss Mack, in May found themselves in a stressful situation. Having a set of twins and the mother only taking one and leaving the bull calf on his own. Prior to this, another cow having lost her calf was grieving. The perfect storm. The now orphan bull calf tried to nurse on the grieving cow and she would just kick him away. They were able to catch the now 45lb calf, which was losing ground after not being able to eat for two days. Using the deceased calf as a lure, they were able to get the cow in a secure outbuilding. They skinned the dead calf and secured it on the orphan bull calf. After several times trying to feed, the grieving cow accepted her new calf and was completely bonded after two weeks.

Bitterrott Bison cow and orphan buffalo calf (bull)
 Michael Gallacher Photo of Montana

So after reading this first article, having to find out more, first talking with Candy, his wife, then a phone call to Troy. I find this all so interesting. He was very forthcoming and told me how he became a bison rancher and eventually meeting his future business partner, Dr. Mack in 2005. They have about 90 cows on one location and in the past 18 years have had at least 5 sets of twins. All from different cows and bulls. The second time the bison calf grafting occurred in 2014. For it to happen once in 2010 was huge news for the bison industry, it had never been done before. Now we have a second time and can now say these guys either have the best luck in a sometimes bad situation or they know what they are doing by pure instinct of being that close their herd.

The hide from the bison calf that died is removed and tied with biodegradable twine to the single twin calf and then it is introduced to the cow that lost her calf. When I asked how the hide was tied on, Troy said, “It only needs to cover the butt, because its head will be trying to nurse and the cow will sniff the rear of the calf.” It takes a couple of days before the calf is able to slip out of the hide and by then the mother cow is attached to her new calf.

The buffalo calf will nurse about every hour and a half for five to ten minutes. One of my goals is to find out how much milk a bison cow carries. Looking at a young bison’s udder and seeing the graphs of how they are built to deliver milk, I never thought they could hold very much. I asked Troy if he could guess,  he said, maybe a half gallon.” My guess was a quart. He said, “the older cows that have produced a few calves already, their bags are larger, calves are bigger, and better than first calves. “

My next question was shots. I read from so many others that they give vitamin shots to help the calf. I never have and worried maybe I should?  Troy does not give any shots to an orphan unless they are in trouble. He sticks to the more natural husbandry of what nature planned. If the calf never had a chance at colostrum, then, of course, that is given. The window for colostrum is only about 24 hours, after which he uses a lamb milk replacer and has had great success.

I really enjoyed my talk with Troy from the Bitterroot Bison Ranch. He obviously really loves his job and the animals he oversees. I knew it was a place that had been Certified Humane, but I didn’t know they were the first bison ranch that was named certified and still is today.  Bitterrootbison.com Montana, USA

 

I found a  Bison Milk Replacer, I would check the “guaranteed analysis” on their sites for any updates.

BISON MILK REPLACERBison Calves on bottle
Guaranteed Analysis

 

 

Hi Brow Brown Feeds
Guaranteed Analysis

Bison Milk Replacer- This feed contains added selenium at 0.15 mg/kg
Crude protein (Minimum) 24%
Protein from milk sources (Minimum) 24%
Crude Fat (Minimum)22%
Crude Fibre  (Maximum)  .15%
Calcium (CA)Actual 1.3%
Phosphorus (P) (Actual) 0.85%

 

Wesley #itsallaboutwesley

Wesley, this is my first orphan calf at 6 weeks old. I’ve had most of them just a day or two and one that was 3 months old. The one at three months was no trouble at all, I treated her for worms and established a more healthy diet and she was growing like a weed. Never any health issues. 

Wesley was at a age where he was still very dependant on his mother, but yet a little independant. After I noticed is mother not looking right, Wesley was still able to nurse. The last three weeks, he was only able to nurse about half the time and eventually not at all.  Wesley was learning to survive on his own. I didnt want to seperate him from the his herd but, we needed to know each other in case he were to ever get sick, I needed him to trust me. 

First day
July 28th 2023

Milk Replacer

My personal experience has been with foal replacer . In 2023 when I had a cow die and had to care for her calf, I started him on Lambs milk, it is easier to find in July/August. Many bison produces swear by it. So far I like what I’m seeing, but its only been a week.  This calf was orphaned at 6 weeks of age and already grazing before his mom died.

Move to the barn

I managed to guide the calf into the barn through a makeshift alley, gently encroaching on its space just enough to propel it forward in a calm manner. Once settled in its new environment, I began offering milk from a bottle. By positioning myself at the calf’s eye level, I avoided appearing as an intimidating figure and gradually moved closer, squirting some milk onto its nose. This prompted the calf to lick the milk off, giving it a taste of something it had scarcely experienced in the past week. Over several hours, its curiosity grew, but it remained wary of my presence. The calf’s familiarity with me was due to the time I had spent attempting to save its mother. On the first day, I successfully inserted the bottle’s nipple into the calf’s mouth while it lay down, and eventually, it began suckling.Milk Drool

Now that I have him under the bottle, I need to move him again to a different stall. No temporary panels this time, I am counting on the desire to nurse for him to follow me. He had a couple of obstacles to overcome in the trek to the new stall. I sat down on the ground and waited on him, similar to what his mom would do. (wait) In just a few seconds he would jump and be right beside me. The second obstacle was a bit more to overcome and I was running out of milk. Fake it until you make it. I quickly added a little more water to the bottle and it was enough to get him inside the stall where I could close the door behind him. All this was a very slow thought-out process. Put yourself in his world…everything is scary. I need him to trust me and that takes time.

Texas Spring Water

 

Bison Calf Poop
Two month old bison calf stool. Bottle fed 9 days.

We are now on day 3 in his new stall. He has learned when I sit down that means bottle. Smart little guy. He has already drank his allotted milk bottle and wants more. I had brought a bottled water out for myself and he decided he needed that as well. So I offered and he drank. It’s really hard to tell them no to things when they are so darn cute. This was one time I could give in to his wants.

Having spent nearly two months with his mother before becoming an orphan, this calf exhibits a unique behavior compared to day-old orphans. While the latter tend to bond with their caregivers almost immediately, this young calf expresses a strong attachment to feeding rather than the caregiver.

Before being orphaned, he already had diarrhea and struggled with his mother’s inability to feed him consistently. Despite these challenges, the calf adapted and made do with what he could at such an early stage in life. Now thriving with proper feedings.

 

Now that he is under my care I am able to keep a closer eye on feeding him, by checking his stools regularly. The stool can tell you a lot. Pay attention.

 

Milk Bottle

Wesley with new Bess BottleBess Calf Bottle

I am loving this new bottle, perfect size, easy to hang onto with one hand, easy cleaning with a bottom that opens. #BessBottles.Wesley and his new Bess bottle

You can follow Wesleys’ progress on my Facebook Page (https://www.facebook.com/allaboutbison/)

 

 

 

 

 

 

New Borns

I watch my new calves like a hawk until I feel they are stabling. Anything can pop up in a skinny minute. I check mouth temperature, just making sure its warm.  Pulling lids back checking for dehydration. Watching their stools for color, smell and texture. Just all around mobility and attitude. While its normal for a new calf to not want anything to do with you, but sometimes that could be an indication that they don’t feel well. This is a demanding full time job…that little calf is depending on you. Our job is to try and replicate what its mother would do for him. Confidence, [low stress], exercise, quiet and safe environment to grow. ONCE they are strong and stable, you can introduce them to the rest of your life if you have to. (dog, kid….etc) Just as with rearing anything, slow gets the results quicker.

Orphan Buffalo Calf

The look on this calfs’ face tells me , in this minute she is healthy, bright, alert and curious.  I keep any new calves in the barn until they follow a milk bottle, making sure they are connected so they don’t run off and get into trouble. In the stall, no buckets with handles. Small tubs for grain and water. The ones I use have ‘no tip’ sides. After I am confident they will follow me, I take them outside to a round pen where they can enjoy the sun and grass and get some fresh air. I dont leave them out all night for fear of a stray or coyote. When they are older they can then be moved to an outdoor pen, still making sure they have all the necessities to continue growing into a healthy bison.

 

 

Grainews.ca
Problems and benefits of twin calves
Animal Health: It is worth the extra management effort to save both calves

By Roy Lewis  March 12, 2018

In my practice, I often hear producers complaining about twins, mainly because often the focus is on the problems they can present.

Bison Calf twins
About eight percent of most common beef breeds will produce twins, and it is also quite common among bison. Economics show there is value in making the extra effort to save the extra calf. Photo: Roy Lewis

However, research done on a twinner population over the last 10 years in the U.S. found there to be a definite economic benefit with twins. So it is important to look at both the positive and negative aspects that come with these double deliveries.

There is no doubt twins can be a positive if they both arrive alive, are the same sex and you have an extra cow to foster one of the buffalo calves. But we all know the opposite — twins coming malpresented (mixed up), then you finally get them out (with or without veterinary assistance) both are dead and the cow doesn’t clean and becomes a problem to rebreed. If we can minimize the bad scenario and come up with more positives, twins would be welcome. Keep in mind they will always require more care, attention and management skills.

Dystocias from fetal malpresentation are the biggest reason twins have a lower survival at birth. Twin or triplet lambs and kids are seldom mixed up at birth, yet calves commonly are. When one ponders all the permutations and combinations of all the legs and two heads coming backwards and forwards, it is no wonder mixups occur. In U.S. twinning research, they selected and kept cows with a propensity to twin resulting in more than 60 percent of cows delivering twins. They knew to watch these cows closely and jump in when problems developed.

The article further goes on about twins and information on the cow side (freemartins). A special thank you to them for allowing me to share this article.

ABOUT THE AUTHOR Roy Lewis, Columnist
Roy Lewis is an Alberta-based veterinarian specializing in large-animal practice. He is also a part-time technical services vet for Merck Animal Health.

 

Reintroduction back to the herd.  (Bison Producers of Alberta)

When the orphan is reintroduced into the herd, there will be some adjusting. Most of the time the bison will be accepted back into the herd in time but it may take a while. When you first put her out with the others, she will be chased away and possibly bullied. The other bison will know that she is different and she will not know that she belongs in the herd. Most people report that the orphan will either hang out by herself or be on the outskirts of the herd at first. Gradually she will become part of the herd as they get used to each other.

I have not heard of an orphan bison that did not eventually get accepted back into the herd. However, I did hear about an elk that was never accepted by the herdmates. You can bring them back to the bison pasture before weaning and continue to feed them milk while with the other bison. Most calves will come running when you arrive with the bottle. You want to make sure that she is big and strong enough to take a little bit of chasing and bunting when she is reintroduced.

It is a good idea to have a companion for the bison calf while being orphaned. A beef calf or holstein calf works well. Be sure that there are no sheep on the farm where the orphan is going so that it doesn’t contract malignant catarrhal fever (MCF).

Gerald Hauer
Bison Centre of Excellence