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The Montana Standard
Butte, Montana Jan 6, 1919
Story of How C.J. Jones captured Eight Calves from Wolves and Coyotes: Buffalo in Parks in Many States.

  Remnants of Buffalo Herds Are Increasing American Bison Society’s Report Shows 6,523 Animals Living Under Government Protection In 29 States “Buffalo” Jones’ Story.

The annual report of the American Bison Society just issued tells that the herds of buffalo under the United States government supervision not only show a satisfactory increase but a noticeable improvement in quantity and appearance over the original stock.

Among the herds will be found some of the largest and most magnificent specimens of this noble and historical animal. Col. Charles Goodnight, the well-known breeder of buffalo and catalo, after a recent inspection of the Wichita herd, proclaimed them to be the largest and finest buffalo he had ever seen. It might be remarked incidentally; that Col. Charles Goodnight was brought up in the buffalo country laid out the Goodnight trail in 1866 and is known as the “father of the Panhandle of Texas.”

The society expects shortly to establish two more herds, one in Pisgah National forest and game preserve in North Carolina, the other in Sully Hill park, North Dakota.

Edmund Seymour of 45 Wall street, president and Martin S. Garretson of 1055 Jackson avenue, secretary, report that during the year the society has received some valuable donations of old buffalo guns, bows, arrows and other implements and weapons used in the extermination of the great herds of bison: also donations of clippings, old prints, photographs and other interesting matter relating to the buffalo.

The bison society is collecting for its permanent records all historical data that can be obtained, so that hereafter any student of American bison history may find everything at hand in the society records that he may wish relating to the species.

Bison are in parks in 29 states and the District of Columbia. The United States government maintains six herds containing 758 animals as follows: Montana National Bison range, 200: National Zoological park, Washington, D.C. 18: Niobrara reservation, Neb. 14: Wichita national forest and game preserve, Okla., 92: Wind Cave national game preserve, South Dakota, 34: and Yellowstone national park, Wyo., 400.

Bison have increased in numbers since 1889 by 5,432 animals. The herd in 1889 totaled 1,091: today is numbers 6,523.


Theodore Roosevelt, who is the honorary president of the society, the object, which is the permanent preservation and protection of the North American big  game, calls the buffalo the most distinctive animal on this continent. He says of the buffalo: “The biggest of the American big game, probably, on the whole, the most distinctive game animal on this continent, the animal  which played the greatest part in the lives of the Indians, and which most deeply impressed the imaginations of all the old hunters and early settlers.”

At one time buffaloes were so thick on the plains that it would take a herd of bison 25 days to pass a given point. When the American Bison Society was formed a census showed only 1.071 animals of pure blood in the United States. These were owned mostly by private individuals.

The society was formed of such public-spirited men as Dr. William T. Hornaday, the first president, now a vice president; Theodore Roosevelt, the first and still the honorary president; Dr. T. S. Palmer, E. H. Baynes, Prof. Henry F. Osborn, Gifford Pinchot, Clark Williams, Prof. Franklin W. Hooper and “Buffalo” Jones.

Thoughtless people inquired: “Why should the buffalo be preserved? He has had his day, served his purpose and must make way for civilization. Like the Indian, he must go.”


A properly qualifier! conservationist and sportsman to answer such a question is Mr. Seymour. .Says Mr. Seymour; “There are two views as to why the buffalo should be preserved one sentimental or ideal, the other practical or commercial. The former is the one that appeals I think to most Americans who have a pride in the love of their country. We stand for the idea and spend our money for sentiment. The bison society appealed to congress on the ideal ground, and it was sufficient.

“The buffalo is the most conspicuous and the largest of all native American game animals, hardy, and strong and of impressive majesty. The artists of the government have reproduced his head or figure for our bills and coins. Take a 5-cent piece from your pocket and look at the buffalo. It stands for something!  It is identical with the sentiment of our country.

“It is not generally known that in the early colonial days’ buffalo inhabited practically all the eastern states as well as the great plains in the west.  The early pioneers, the men of ’49, often depended upon the buffalo for their very existence. To commemorate their early struggles and dangers is a sufficient reason why this animal should be preserved to the descendants of those early settlers. The mothers of those days-some of them are still alive may remember when they were given their courting days good, thick buffalo robes to keep them warm, and I think the ladies will vote to preserve the buffalo.

“How about the real American – the Indian”

His tribal life is fast breaking up and he is being absorbed in the “melting pot” for the future great American type. His descendants have a right to insist that his story shall be preserved and that this animal, which was part of his daily life and furnished his food, clothing, and shelter and fuel, should not become extinct.

“Before the white man came and taught him to drink whiskey, the Indian was a good citizen; he was kind, brave, a good father and husband, a true friend and generous without limit. In the early days you could always trust an Indian, but the old saying of the Indian about the white man was: “White man mighty uncertain.’

“For centuries the Indian was largely’ dependent on the buffalo and killed only what he needed. Alter the hunter had taken his part the rest went to the tribe and was used. He was a game protector and conservationist of the first order. I have stood at Medicine Rocks, in South Dakota, and counted without moving over 100 skeletons of buffalo killed by white men merely for their hides and tongues; all the rest was left to the wolves.

“On my ranch in Montana a few years before I put in my cattle, one outfit of white hunters killed 3,700 head of buffalo. Good roads were afterward made in that country to haul out the buffalo bones. It is a wonder one is left. The white man being largely responsible for the extermination of the buffalo, it is his duty to preserve the species. Should not our children and their children’s children see and know this wonderful animal, so distinctive and closely related to our ancestors.”  -New York Times


St. Landry Clarion
Opelousas, Louisiana Jan 18, 1919

Form the Nucleus and the Conservation Commission Expects to Rapidly Increase Numbers from the Small Beginning As in the days before the coming of the white man, when northern blizzards drove birds and animals southward, southward, Louisiana is to become again the herding grounds for the buffalo.

The start of the return of the great American bison to the Pelican State was accomplished January 3, when six splendid animals from the famous. Corbin bison herd of New Hampshire, purchased by the department of conservation, arrived at the Louisiana forest reserve at Urania, and were turned into a specially constructed inclosure where it is expected they will rapidly propagate and within the next twelve years this magnificent four-footed hoofed animal will roam again the forests of the state.

The nucleus of the new Louisiana buffalo herd at the present time has been turned loose with the elk herd, which has been on the Urania forest preserve for the past three years, and whose numbers are in excellent condition. The buffalo herd contains four cows and one bull. One of the bulls is said to be the finest specimen of bison to be found in the United States today and weighs over sixteen hundred pounds.

With the acquisition of the buffalo herd at Urania, this part of La Salle parish is fast becoming one of the show places of the United States, and within the next year or two the department of conservation expects to commence stocking the rest of the state with the increase from these two herds. According to advice given out by the department, the American buffalo is not a buffalo at all, but in reality is what is known as the bison. True buffaloes are found only in Asia and Africa and have no hump on their shoulders; while the American bison has a very high hump, but the fact that it has been popularly called a buffalo by one hundred million Americans means that it would be very difficult to change the popular name from “buffalo” to the correct name of bison.

The bison was first seen by white men in Anahuac, the Aztec capital of Mexico, in 1521, when Cortez and his men paid their first visit to the famed menagerie of King Montezuma. The first bison to be seen in the wild state in this country was when a shipwrecked Spanish sailor saw a herd in southern Texas in 1530. It was when the continent of North America was settled by the early pioneers and they moved westward that the great herds of buffalo were first encountered, and it is said that they covered 3600 miles from north to south and 2000 miles from east to west; yet, in March of 1903 it was estimated by Dr. William T. Hornaday, director of the New York zoological park, that there were in captivity only 1119 buffaloes, of which 109 had been sent to zoological Parks in Europe. The buffalo, in the early days, covered the entire Mississippi valley, and it was only after the Union Pacific Railway was built across the country that the great herd was divided into two parts, a northern herd, and a southern herd, and the southern herd was exterminated by two great attacks of hide hunters, one in 1871 and the last attack in 1875, when the buffalo were killed by the hundreds of thousands and left rotting on the plains.

Among the first champions of the buffalo was the late Augustus Corbin; who, a number of years ago, fenced in 128 pure blooded animals in the game preserve in the Blue Mountains in New Hampshire, and started a nation-wide movement for the protection of the other buffalo remaining in the United States. So successful did Mr. Corbin’s efforts become that it was possible this year for different states to make a purchase of breeding stock from this herd and this is where the new Louisiana herd was secured.

The bison do so well in captivity that it is with the slightest effort that the herds increase, and it is expected that within the next dozen years that the increase from the Louisiana herd will be such that practically every portion of the state will be supplied by the department with breeding animals from La Salle herd.


The Buffalo Enquirer

Buffalo New York Mar 14 1919

In Omaha you can buy “buffalo steak,” which is bison meat, for $1 a pound.

A while since you could buy an entire bison out west for a dollar. Buffalo Bill shot many a hundred in one day for workmen- that built the railroads to the Pacific.

Since the war began men have eaten whales, mules, horses, dogs and cats. They pack in tins the long arms of the devilfish, which turn red after they are boiled, and sell them for lobsters. You cannot tell the difference.

What will men be eating five hundred thousand years from now? And what will the little boys with big heads, no teeth or hair and rudimentary feet say when they go through the museum in that future day, see the stuffed whales,  bison, horses, devilfish and bear that men once ate those things and called themselves civilized?


The Perry County Democrat
Bloomfield, Pennsylvania June 11, 1919

The Bison is one of the most remarkable animals of our country. It is about as large as an ox. It inhabits both parts of the American continent, and in North America, immense herds are frequently seen.

The bison grazes like a cow; he runs wild in forests, and his appearance is threatening and ferocious. No person could see this animal in the woods, for the first time, without showing him his heels and escaping from his company as soon as possible.

The chase of these animals is one of the favorite sports of the Indians, who use the flesh as food and have several ingenious ways of killing them. The vast herds of bison, in the western country, some times present a most astonishing spectacle. They press close together, so as to appear to be one solid mass, and then rush onward, driving before them, or crushing every thing that comes in their way. Their line of march is seldom stopped even by deep rivers, for they swim over them without fear, and nearly in the order that they traverse the plains. When flying before their pursuers, it would be in vain for the foremost to halt, or to attempt, to stop those behind him. as they rush on, no matter what is before them. In their course, they frequently brush down large trees.

The Indians have a curious method of luring these animals to leap over a high precipice. A swift-footed and active young man is selected, who is disguised in a bison’s skin, having the head, ears, and horns so fixed, as to deceive even the bisons themselves. When thus arrayed, he stations himself between the herd and some of the precipices, which often extend for several miles along the river. – The Indians surround the herd and rush upon them with loud yells. The animals being alarmed, and seeing no way open but in the direction of the disguised Indian. Pull towards him and he taking to flight dashes on to the precipice, where he suddenly hides himself within some crevice. The foremost bison of the herd arrives at the brink he cannot turn back; there is no chance of escape; the poor creature shrinks with terror, but the crowd behind press upon him, and he is hurled, with those who follow him, over the precipice. This seems a cruel and wasteful method of killing buffaloes, and fortunately, it is not often resorted to by the Indians.

A better way of killing bison is that of attacking them on horseback. The sense of smell in the bison is wonderfully nice. It is said by hunters that the odor of the white man is far more terrifying to them than that of the Indian. In Long’s expedition to the Rocky Mountains, a story is told of all exploring party, who were riding through a dreary country, where a vast number of bisons were used to roam. As the wind was blowing fresh from the south, the scent of the party was wafted directly across the river Platte, and over a distance of eight or ten miles readied the bisons. The instant their atmosphere was infected with the tainted gale, they ran as violently as if closely pursued by mounted hunters, and instead of fleeing from the danger, they turned their heads toward the wind, eager to escape this terrifying odor.

The skins of the bison are commonly of a reddish brown color. They furnish the Indians and whites with excellent coverings in winter. A sleigh ride would be uncomfortable without them, and they form an excellent protection from the rain and cold. They are called buffalo robes; the term buffalo, being generally, but incorrectly, applied to the bison.

The bisons have often been seen in herds of three, four, and five thousand, blackening the planes and prairies as far as the eye could view. At night it is impossible for persons, unaccustomed to their noise, to sleep near them. Their continued roaring sounds like distant thunder. Although the bison is a very fierce looking animal, it is, at the same time, generally quite harmless. A little boy might go near them, and perhaps, even chase them, without their turning to injure him.

A young bison, it is said, displays an affecting instance of attachment to its mother, when the latter happens to be killed by the hunters: the young one then will not leave her, but alarmed and trembling, follows the hunters, who are carrying away its parent.

To the Indian tribes, the bison is an invaluable gift. He supplies a large part of the food used by the natives, and coverings to their tents and persons; while his very refuse is used for fuel, in the desert places where no tree or shrub is to be seen. How wonderfully are all things adapted to the wants of man!

The bisons are often taken in pitfalls covered with boughs of trees and grass, and when thus captured, they are easily killed. When the ice is broken up on the rivers in the spring of the year, the dry .grass of the surrounding plains is set on fire, and the bisons are tempted to cross the river, in search of the young grass that immediately succeeds the old. In the attempt to cross, the bison often gets entangled in the ice and is killed by the Indians.


The Tuscaloosa News
Tuscaloosa, Alabama Aug. 4, 1919
Government Saved Species from Utter Extinction

Washington, Aug. 4. Provision Is made in the current agricultural appropriation act for the Secretary of Agriculture to give buffalo to municipalities and public institutions from any surplus which may exist in the herds now under the control of the Department of Agriculture.

In order to aid in the propagation of tile species, the bill provides that animals may be lent to or exchanged with other owners of American bison.

No provision is made to give them to individuals, and only one may be given to each municipality or public institution. This provision is made because of the surplus of bulls in some of the Department of Agriculture’s buffalo herds, particularly the one in the Wichita National Forest and Game Preserve, In Oklahoma, and because the department is nearing the realization of the first stage in the preservation of the species the acquisition of at least 1,000 . head of buffalo by the Government.

There are approximately 7,000 buffalo In North America. Canada has something over 3,500, and the total number in the United States is more than 3,000. This is about seven times the number in the United States in 1889 when the first buffalo census was taken. Individuals in the United States own up proximately 2,000 of the total number in this country.

There are eight Government herds six of which are under the control of the Department of Agriculture. The largest herd in this country is in charge of the Interior Department and is located in the Yellowstone National Park, where there are about 450 bison. The Smithsonian Institute now has a herd of 18 at the National Zoological Park, Washington, D. C.

The first herd of buffalo under the Department of Agriculture was established in 1906; on the Wichita National Forest and Game Preserve. The original herd consisted of 15 animals, the gift of the New York Zoological Society, and this has now increased to more than 100 animals without any outside addition.

Two herds have been established in the past year, one in Sullys Hill Park, North Dakota, the other in the Pisgah National Game Preserve, North Carolina. The other herds supervised by the Department of Agriculture are located in the Montana National Bison Range; the Niobrara Reservation, Nebraska; and the Wind Cave Game Preserve, South Dakota. The plan of the department is to establish at least ten herds, widely distributed, in order to prevent the spread of any contagious disease, should it become uncontrollable in any of the herds.


Grand Forks Herald
Grand Forks North Dakota Sep 18, 1919

Edmonton, Sept. 18.—Benjamin Lawton, chief game guardian of the province, is considerably amused over a dispatch from New York that a party of naturalists would come’ to Banff shortly, and from there work through the unmapped portions of the Alberta Rockies, in a hunt, for wood bison in their natural lairs.

The intention of the party was to come out of the wilds somewhere along the Crow’s Nest Pass, and that en route the bison would be photographed while at play.

“They will do some mighty good hunting if they find any wood bison there,” declared Mr. Lawton. “The only wood bison in existence are away up in the north country west of Fort Smith, and previous exploration through the Rockies has made it quite certain that none are to be found in any part of the mountain region.

Lawton is inclined to think that either the New York scientists are misinformed about the resources of the Alberta Rockies, or that there has been an error in the announcement of their plans.


The Hancock Democrat
Greenfield Indiana Nov 13, 1919
Russian Bison -Exterminated.

 What has happened, during the war, to the bison herds of Central Europe? Protected by a ukase of the Czar Alexander, bisons still existed in some private parks of Poland and Lithuania, the last of their kind in Europe. Count Potocki’s herd was kept in an immense park, and for some time was protected by the Cossacks of the Don. But according to a French writer, M. Grandidier, there is no doubt as to their ultimate fate. In 1917 the bolsheviki thought fitting to include the herd in their policy of extermination. Bisons could not be owned by everybody, therefore they must be owned by nobody, and so, in the general cataclysm, the famous herd disappeared.


The Ligonier Echo
Ligonier, Pennsylvania Dec 3 1919
Government Establishing Herds in one National Park after another.
Buffalo Parks in Various States.
Bisons Multiply at a State Most.. Promising for “Planting of Many Herds.

WASHINGTON, D. C The American bison is not going to become an extinct species of mammal. Naturalists have entertained the gloomiest expectations in this regard, but they seem likely to be agreeably disappointed.

Our old friend the buffalo is coming back. The government is establishing herds in one national park after another, and their rate of increase is most satisfactory. Never again will they roam the plains as of old indeed, there is no room for them, their pasture being occupied by another and domesticated species of the genus Bos  – but it is likely that there will be plenty of them, suitably protected.

Take, for example, the Wichita National Forest, in Oklahoma. It is a Federal game preserve and within its guarded borders, fifteen buffaloes were “planted” only a few years ago. They came from New York state and were contributed by a group of enthusiasts who call themselves the American Bison Association. Already the survivors, with their progeny, number more than a hundred.

More picturesquely interesting, for reasons connected with zoological history, is a “plant” of six buffaloes newly made in the Pisgah National Forest, in the mountains of North Carolina. For there was a time not so very long ago when herds of these animals browsed over that region, in fact, all over the Southern Appalachian country and they were not exterminated there until about the time of the Revolution. This hunch of half a dozen came from the Austin Corbin place, in New Hampshire, where there has been a buffalo preserve, preserve, under private ownership, for many years. In the Pisgah forest, an extensive inclosure has been built for them and they are making themselves comfortably at home.

A bunch of twenty-five buffaloes to start a herd was planted in the Windcave National Park, at the south end of the Black Hills, in South Dakota, five years ago. According to recent reports, they were multiplying most satisfactorily.


Adams Country Free Press, Iowa, Dec 20 1919

F.A. Savage,
……an enterprising meat man of Iciola has bought a buffalo from the “Scotty Phillips” ranch of 10,000 acres near Ft. Pierre, S. D., Where there is a herd or more than 1000 head. The ranch was started in the early 80’s with a herd of 40 head. The ranch is fenced with a 7-foot woven wire fence with two strings of barb wire on top, and in the pasture there are hills, plains, timber, natural springs and everything a buffalo needs. Mr. Leonard who is now manager of the ranch, says after eight years in charge of the herd, he finds the animals native intelligence to be unusual. They never graze in among the buttes, where there is both shelter and feed in the summer time, but reserve it for the winter time when the snow gets deep and in driving storms you will find them in sheltered places, living on the grass that they can serve during the summer. The animal will come to Mr. Savage with the hide and head on and be an very interesting sight to almost every man, woman and child.


The Tennessean
Nashville, Tennessee Dec 21, 1919
 Monarch of Plains Is Feature in ‘The Feud.’
The passing of the monarch of the plains – The American bison generally – called the buffalo -is recalled by -The “The Feud,” the new Tom Mix feature.

A herd of bison and a bison hunt are shown on the screen in this feature. Tom Mix and his company went from Los Angeles, Cal., to Ponca City, Okla., to get the animals to be photographed. There are fewer than 5,000 bison left in the whole United States, according; to the most recent estimate, and the famous 101 Ranch, owned by Col. Joe Miller, contains the largest single herd. Permission to photo-graph the herd was obtained through the personal friendship of Tom Mix and Col. Miller who even permitted the daredevil star to shoot down one of his bison during the hunt now recorded in films.

The herd of bison seen in “The Fend” numbers several score, from majestic old bulls down to calves. They are first seen grazing. Then the hunters came and the bison break into their peculiar lumbering gallop.

The practical extinction of the bison is a chapter in American history which is universally regretted. Time was when the bison ranged the plains from Great Slave Lake, northern latitude 02. to the northeastern provinces of Mexico, latitude 25. While buffalo bones have been found as far east as Ohio, and as far northwest as Puget Sound, their main habitat was between the Mississippi river and the Rocky Mountains.

The bison were pre-eminently gregarious. Their behavior was much like that of domestic cattle. On that account, they were easy prey for hunters. The Indians killed many by driving the herds over the cliffs.

But the real passing of the bison came when the white man began extending the frontiers of civilization westward. The animals, which darkened the plains, were slaughtered wholesale. Often only the tongues were utilized, for they were considered a great’ delicacy. The skins were often tanned. The “buffalo coat” and the “buffalo robe” were familiar objects two generations ago. Now the mighty monarch of the plains is virtually a thing of the past.


Adams County Free Press, Iowa, Dec 24, 1919

……In answer to many personal inquiries as to how it came about that that Tinsley Film Company went to South Dakota last fall, I will say that in the first place it was no easy job to get them to go in after they arrived it was a still harder job to secure the rights which were granted without paying in cash heavily for the privilege. However, though my personal acquaintance with the real estate firms, bankers, directors, boss farmers and the Scotty Philips Estate and Indian Chiefs, I secured for Mr. Tinsley the privilege of getting the film of this great performance, which is all real.
……This show is an annual event which takes place twenty miles south of my ranch on the Indian Reservation on the White river in Mellette county, South Dakota. Thousands of people congregate every year from all over the United States and even as far as Mexico and South America to enter in these contest for the large prizes offered by the association for the best riders, bull-doggers, skillful ropers and in fact every daring stunt they can be or ever was pulled off in the West.
……Thousands of Indians from various tribes congregate in their grand and gorgeous array and put on war dances, pow wows, dog eating, etc. Many performances Mr. Tinsley paid the Chiefs for extra in order to get them to do stunts that were not on the program. One chief would not consider a cash payment but through the interpreter, the Indian boss farmer, Mr. Tinsley finally secured what he wanted to make complete his film by agreeing to dance what is called a squaw dance with the squaws which he did, to the general daylight of all the Indians.
……In addition to the great performance at White river, I secured a right which had never been granted before to any movie man and drove 125 miles myself to do so and that is worth the price of admission itself. The Scotty Philips Buffalo ranch of over eight hundred buffalo. They wanted $500 for the right but I was personally acquainted with the boys, who, by the way, are fine sports, and secured the right for nothing as I a convince them it was as much of an investment for them and South Dakota as it was for the Film company. It takes some nerve to go out among eight hundred buffalo and commence twisting the crank but Tinsley stood pat until a big bull got wise and started to go over the top and believe me we all moved. These buffalo are worth about $300 each and are owned by the Philips’ estate. Scotty Philips’ wife was in the Indian. The boys and girls are mighty fine people and assisted us in every way possible. In addition to the above named performances, there are many features that are too numerous to mention- the eagle eye of the camera caught Frank Widner and Carl Piper looping the loop six thousand feet above the crowd in a big army airplane and Ed Johnson, our café proprietor, dancing the Indian War Dance and talking heap-much with Big Chiefs.
……To make a long story short, be prepared to go and see this great production as it is well worth your time and many times the cost. I am not interested in a sense financially but want my friends to see a real Wild West Movie.

Yours truly,
E. B. Piper.



Chicago Daily Tribune Dec 28 1919
Buffalo Exhibited in Loop to Provide Steaks for New Year’s


1919 Bison History Chicago Daily Dec 28

……The carcass of an 1,100 pound buffalo was carried about the loop on a truck yesterday to let Chicagoans know that they are to have a chance to eat buffalo meat on New Year’s day. The buffalo is one of three just received by a local meat market from the ranch of Scotty Phillips near Fort Pierre, S.D. Phillips raises the animals for the market. He has a herd of 1,200 on his ranch, and each year cowboys shoot the young bulls in true Buffalo Bill fashion. This year 120 were killed, and Chicago received three as its share.


Willmar Tribune
Willmar Minnesota Dec31, 1919

Ackerman Will Sell You a Hunk of Venison and Send You a “Buffalo Bill.”

Literally speaking C. Ackerman & Co., has got us all “buffaloed.” No use denying that fact. Inside the front window of the Ackerman Meat Market with his legs sprawling and his “in’ards” gone there has been on exhibit a fallen monarch of the plains —a fine specimen of the once proud, now nearly extinct, king of the western prairie—the buffalo.

Yes, if you want a fine juicy bison steak or a buffalo hump roast now is the chance of your life time.

This buffalo is one from the famous Philips herd at Fort Pierre, S. Dak., and was shipped in by our butchers for the purpose of giving those who wished the novelty of a taste of real bison meat. The butchered animal is attracting a crowd of spectators every hour of the day. It is a steer four years old, weighs 1100 pounds dressed, and will be cut up in time for the New Year’s table.