Topsoil – the bottomline of productivity

We’re all familiar with topsoil, but what is it exactly? Obviously, beyond being the top layer of soil or a medium for propping up plants, soil is a living and breathing microbial ecosystem upon which all our lives depend. There are more beneficial bacteria in one spoonful of healthy soil than people on the planet. Some of them fix nitrogen from the atmosphere into soil or plant roots to be synthesized into proteins while others decompose organic residues and improve soil structure. Beneficial fungi such as mycorrhizae carry nutrients and water to plant roots in a symbiotic association. A dizzying … Read more